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Cazenove Journal 





(Translated from the French) 




Haverford College Studies, Number 13 

Price ^1.80 postpaid. Address, The Registrar^ 

Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 







Copyright 1922, by 
Richard T. Cadbury, 
Haverford, Pennsylvania 

1^,-. M 






r, - . . ^ 





Preface iii-iv 

Introduction v-xv 

Itinerary xvi-xvii 

Cazenove Journal 1-87 

Expense Account 87-91 

Index 93-103 


Theophile Cazenove Frontispiece 

Map of Cazenove's Journey facing xviii 

Facsimile, page i of Manuscript facing i 

View of Bethlehem facing 25 

Facsimile, page 46 of Manuscript facing 73 



Seldom probably does so small a volume as this 
one owe its existence to so many craftsmen. 

For help in translating and in the far more difficult 
task of transcribing the original manuscript the 
editor is in great debt to his chief, President William 
W. Comfort, and his colleague, Mr. J. McF. Car- 
penter, of Haverford College; also to Lieutenant 
Joseph Folliguet, of Chamonix, France, and Mad- 
emoiselle Gabrielle de Croze, of Bryn Mawr, Penn- 
sylvania. For careful scrutiny and helpful criticism 
of the finished work of the editor, sincere thanks are 
extended to Professor William E. Lunt, of Haverford 
College. The Index was compiled by Miss Mary 
Ellis of the New York State Library School. 

In the work of gathering material on the life of 
Theophile Cazenove and on the localities mentioned 
in his Journal generous help has been given by 
libraries and individuals in many places. Especial 
mention is due in this connection to the Library of 
Congress, the New York Historical Society, the New 
Jersey Historical Society, the Buifalo Historical 
Society; Mr. John W. Jordan, Librarian of- the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Mr. Thomas L. 
Montgomery, State Librarian of Pennsylvania; Miss 
Mary P. Parsons, Librarian of the Public Library, 
Morristown, New Jersey; Mr. A. J. F. Van Laer, 
Archivist of the State of New York; Reverend 
William A. Schwarze, of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 
and Reverend P. S. Meinert, of Nazareth, Penn- 
sylvania; Mr. Albert Cook Myers, of Moylan 

iv Cazenove Journal: iyQ4 

Pennsylvania, and Mr. Louis de Cazenove, Jr., of 
New York City. 

Mr. A. C. Huidekoper, of Meadville, Pennsylvania, 
kindly supplied the present writer with a letter of 
introduction to his obliging cousin, Mr. C. P. Van 
Eeghen, of Amsterdam, Netherlands. Mrs. Charles 
S. (Helen Lincklaen) Fairchild, of Cazenovia, New 
York, has rendered untiring service which has been 
most valuable on account of her wide knowledge of 
men and matters connected with the Holland Land 
Company. Professor Paul D. Evans, of Syracuse 
University, New York, has contributed material 
information gathered during his researches in Ams- 
terdam, prior to the visit of the present writer to 
that city. Dr. J. Franklin Jameson, Director of 
the Department of Historical Research of the 
Carnegie Institution, Washington, has been ready 
as ever, with open-handed help. By personal advice 
and through the efficient machinery of his depart- 
ment, the gathering of material in the United States 
and in France has been facilitated. 

One memory will always cling about this little 
book. It is the last in a series of historical tasks 
for which the present writer has gained encourage- 
ment and inspiration from his revered and beloved 
friend and counselor, Isaac Sharpless, formerly 
President of Haverford College. Sit tihi terra levis, 
mollique tegaris arena. 

Finally the most sincere gratitude is due and is 
hereby expressed to those friends of the editor and 
of Haverford College who constitute the Penn- 
sylvania History Press and have made possible the 
publication of this Journal. R. W. K. 

Haverford, Pa., December i, 1921. 


The original French manuscript, of which the 
following is a translation, was purchased by the 
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C, in 1900, 
from a Paris dealer. It is a small book and the writ- 
ing is so fine and so filled with erasures and inter- 
lineations that great difficulty was experienced in de- 
ciphering many parts of it. For help in this task the 
editor is indebted to several of his friends and col- 
leagues, as mentioned in the Preface, but especially to 
Lieutenant Joseph Folliguet, of the French Army. 

The Journal is entirely anonymous, and singularly 
free from those personal allusions that so frequently 
lead to the determination of authorship. The prin- 
cipal clues in the body of the text are the references 
indicating that the writer had lived in Holland, trav- 
eled in France, and latterly had been for some years 
in Philadelphia. 

A further sign post was set up by the servant who 
kept the accounts of the journey, and stated in his 
summary the surplus remaining to the credit of "Mr. 
C." Moreover, the letter of introduction handed by 
the traveler to General William Irvine (see below, 
p. 55) lay patiently among the Irvine Papers in the 
library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
awaiting its opportunity to help in the work of identi- 

^ A further proof of Cazenove's authorship was found in a comparison of the 

hand-writing of the Journal with that of several autograph letters, signed by 
Cazenove, — one in the Library of the New York Historical Society, and several 
in the Library of the Buffalo Hist. Soc, and the Library of Congress. 

vi Cazenove Journal: I7g4 

As the Journalist had indicated more than once his 
acquaintance with Governor Thomas Mifflin, it was 
not surprising to find that the letter to General Irvine, 
which follows, was written by none other: 

Sir: Mr. Cazenove a gentlemen for whom I have 
a sincere esteem, proposes making an excursion into 
the interior parts of Pennsylvania, and will, probably 
pass through your neighborhood. Should that be 
the case, permit me to recommend him to your most 
cordial civilities. Your disposition to oblige, and 
the personal respectability of Mr. Cazenove would, 
I am confident, sufficiently secure your attention to 
this introduction; but it may not be improper to add, 
that few gentlemen have contributed more to place 
the State of Pennsylvania in a favorable light to 
European Emigrants, and none can be more solicitous ■ 
to promote its improvement and prosperity. 

I am, with great regard, 

Your Most Obed.t Hbl.e Serv.t I 

Tho. Miflin^ I 

Philadelphia ' ; 

25th June 1794 

This letter made the circumstantial evidence I 
rather complete, but there was still a chance that 
more than one traveler passed through Pennsylvania 
in 1794 bearing letters of introduction from Governor 
Mifflin. So the final and complete proof of author- 
ship came from another source. 

The writer of the Journal fixed October 28, 1794, 
as the day of his sojourn with the Moravians at 
Nazareth, Pennsylvania (seep. 19 below). Happily 
the official Diarium of the Moravian Church at 
Nazareth is still in existence. For October 28, 1794, 
it contains the following entry: 

* Irvine Papers, XII, 62. 

Introduction vii 

"Ein Herr von Holland, Theophilus Cassanove, 
der Agent einer hoUandischer Compagnie ist, und 
vom Gouverneur Mifflin ein empfehlungs Schreiben 
an Bruder Etwein hatte, sah sich heute hier und in 
Christiansbrunn alles mit besonderer Aufmerksam- 
keit und Theilnahme um, und wohnte auch Abends 
der Versammlung bei, erkaufte verschiedene unserer 
Gemeinschriften und ging den 29 von hier nach 

Since discovering the above evidence at Bethlehem 
the present writer has had the privilege of visiting 
Amsterdam. There, by the courtesy of Mr. C. P. 
Van Eeghen, he has been permitted to examine the 
old letter books of Theophile Cazenove, sixteen of 
which are preserved, covering the period 1790 to 
1799. There is also a small box of original Cazenove 

On October 14, 1794, Cazenove wrote from New 
York to S. Stadnitski, Amsterdam, referring speci- 
fically to his projected journey into the interior of 
Pennsylvania. On November 25, 1794, having com- 
pleted his journey, he wrote from Philadelphia 
outlining his itinerary and mentioning the extensive 
notes taken en route. {Cazenove Letter Book, XIII, 

pp. 55, 61.) 

The mass of material in the Cazenove corres- 
pondence belongs to the history of the Holland Land 
Company rather than to the brief introduction to 
this Journal. 

Theophile Cazenove was descended from a branch 
of the French Cazenove family that migrated to 
Switzerland in the latter half of the i6th century, 
during the religious persecutions in France. He was 

viii Cazenove Journal: 1794 

born in Amsterdam, October 13, 1740, and in 1763 
married Margaret Helen van Jever, whose father was 
a wealthy and prominent citizen of Amsterdam.^ In 
middle life Cazenove was prosperous financially but 
owing to financial reverses his fortunes waned and 
he became dependent largely upon employment for 
a livelihood. There are records in Amsterdam show- 
ing how at a later period, while on a salary, he was 
paying back the obligations that he could not meet 
at the time of his financial debacle. 

In the days of his prosperity Cazenove had been 
associated with those Dutch financiers whose loans 
were so vital to the struggling young republic of the 
New World. The story of how those far-sighted sons 
of Holland foresaw the future greatness of America 
and decided to expand and make permanent their 
investments in the New World is too long a tale for 
this paper. Suffice it to say that they seem not to 
have lost confidence in Cazenove on account of his 
business misfortunes, and he seems still to have been 
capable of some financial undertakings in his own 

Thus, in 1788 Cazenove subscribed to the fund 
that financed Brissot de Warville's journey to the 
United States to investigate the question of invest- 
ments in the debts of the country, state and national. 
Late the following year Cazenove was himself 
planning a journey to America to conduct operations 
in person. On November 30, 1789, he made a 
contract with four of the strongest Dutch banking 
firms of that day according to which he was to carry 
on their financial operations in America. His salary 

'Helen Lincklaen Fairchild (editor), Travels of John Lincklaen, 131-132; 
Raoul de Cazenove, Rapin-Thoyras (Paris, 1866), p. ccxsvi. 

Introduction ix 

was to be 8,000 florins per annum.^ Brissot, back 
in Paris, wrote, November 27, 1789, introducing 
Cazenove to William Duer, Assistant Secretary of 
the Treasury under Hamilton: "He (Cazenove) is 
to settle himself in America, and I believe to make 
some speculations in your funds. I am sure knowing 
your obliging temper, you'll give him good infor- 
mations about his speculations; and I'll be much 
obliged to you to do it and to introduce him to your 

Armed with this letter and others from the Dutch 
bankers who were his employers in the enterprise, 
he arrived in America in March, 1790, and at once 
began active operations. He invested largely, and 
for the most part fortunately, in various depreciated 
securities, buying of one man more than ^100,000 
in South Carolina debt.^ 

About two years after this time, when the specu- 
lation in American debts had been vindicated by 
Hamilton's funding and assumption policy, the 
Dutch financiers turned their attention more espe- 
cially to investments in public lands. The results 
of this policy were the formation of the Holland Land 
Company and its extensive dealings in New York 
and Pennsylvania lands. Theophile Cazenove be- 
came the first General Agent of this Company, 
serving it until his return to Europe in 1799.^ 

An early historian of the Holland Company's 
activities has written of Cazenove as follows : 

■• Data kindly supplied by Mr. Paul D. Evans, of Syracuse Univ., N. Y., 
from his notes taken in Amsterdam. 

* From Duer Papers quoted in Davis, American Corporations, I, 189-190. 

* Davis, American Corporations, I, 193 and note. 

^ Cazenove was also a stockholder in the Pennsylvania Population Co., 
formed in 1792. See letter of James Gibson, Sept. 26, 1842, quoted at close of 
Huidekoper, Hist, of Holland Co. in Pa., Mss. in Penna. Hist. Soc. Library. 

X Cazenove Journal: 1794 

"When the Company made their first purchases of 
lands in the interior of this state, and Pennsylvania 
— soon after 1790 — he had arrived in this country, 
and acted as their agent. In all the negotiations 
and preliminary proceedings, connected with the 
large purchase of Mr. Morris, of this region, the 
interests of the Company were principally confided 
to him. His name is intimately blended with the 
whole history of the title. When the purchase was 
perfected, he was made the General Agent, and under 
his auspices the surveys commenced. The author 
can only judge of him from such manuscript records 
as came from his hands. They exhibit good business 
qualifications and great integrity of purpose. In all 
the embarrassments that attended the perfection of 
the title, he would seem to have been actuated by 
honorable and praiseworthy motives; and to have 
assisted with a good deal of ability the legal managers 
of the Company's interests."^ 

It was in the flush of his early interest in the land 
speculations of the Holland Company that Cazenove 
made his journey through New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania, as recorded in the following Journal. 

Upon his personality and manner of life some 
light can be thrown. He associated with the 
aristocratic group of Frenchmen, in America at 
that period, men who were dubbed "emigres" by 
the fiery Republicans. The Journal of Moreau de 
Saint-Mery pictures the latter group marching 
through the streets of New York in a great Fourth 
of July parade, — "a long procession of French 
Jacobins," with citizen Genet among them, singing 
and shouting, and hurling invectives toward the 
windows where appeared Talleyrand, Beaumetz, 

' O. Turner, Pioneer History of the Holland Purchase of Western Nezo York 
(Buffalo, 1850), 425. 

Introduction xi 

Cazenove, La Coulombe, Le Baron de la Roche, 
and Saint-Mery.^ 

Cazenove lived well, — and paid for It with gout 
in his later days. The following Journal testifies to 
his appetite for good food and choice drinks. Hardly 
a tavern does he mention without a comment on the 
quality of its accommodations. He traveled with 
a coach and four, an extra saddle horse, a valet, 
coachman, and postilion. At his home on Market 
Street, in Philadelphia, inviting dinners were served, 
and liberally patronized by his noted friends. "Tal- 
leyrand and Beaumetz live together," writes a 
chronicler of 1795, "but they both eat at Cazenove's 
on Market Street, — thus the expression 'dine with 
us' means with Cazenove."^° Talleyrand, in his 
Memoirs, does not mention the dinners, but speaks 
with cynical appreciation of how "useful" Cazenove 
was to him during his visit to America. -^^ 

Cazenove returned to Europe in 1799. He stayed 
some time in London but spent most of his remaining 
years on the continent. For about two years he 
remained in the employ of the Dutch bankers, 
trying to help them realize on their American lands. 

' S. L. Mims (editor), Voyage aux Etats-Unis . . . by Moreau de Saint- 
Mery, 139. 

" S. L. Mims (editor), Voyage aux Etats-Unis . . . by Moreau de Saint- 
Mery, 194 — The Phila. City Directory of 1793 contains "Carenove (sic), 
Theophilus, gentleman, 276 High St." High St. was the early name for 
Market St. 

^ Talleyrand, Memoirs of (French edn., 1891), I, 232; (N. Y. edn. 1891-92), 
I, 175. More detailed comment on Cazenove's personality and career in 
America, would perhaps be out of proportion in an introduction to this Journal. 
Much light will no doubt be thrown upon his business activities by the re- 
searches in the History of the Holland Land Co., now being carried on by Mr. 
Paul D. Evans, of Syracuse University. Some interesting data are to be found 
in A. de Cazenove, Quatre Siecles (Nimes, 1908), p. 159 f. According to this 
authority (p. 169) T. Cazenove became a naturalized citizen of the United States 
in December 1794. 

xii Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

In this effort the documents mention his activities 
at Paris, Lyons, and even at Lausanne where for a 
time he roused the curiosity of the famous Necker. 

His last years were spent in Paris. There Tal- 
leyrand had again risen to power, this time in Na- 
poleon's government. The papers are apparently 
not extant that would show Cazenove's exact relation 
to Talleyrand in these years, but it was probably 
somewhat in the nature of confidential adviser, 
especially in matters pertaining to Holland and 
America. At least he was again "useful" to the 
wily minister in advising him on the kind of American 
securities to demand in payment for Louisiana. ^^ 

Cazenove died at Paris, March 6, 1811.^^ The 
testimony of his friend, Paul Busti, his successor as 
General Agent of the Holland Land Company in 
America, ought to be recorded in this connection. 
Writing to his friend, Colonel John Lincklaen, 
June 12, 1811, he said: 

"Our old friend, Mr. Theophilus Cazenove, died 
some time in March in Paris. . . . His strict prin- 
ciples of honour made him apply the earnings of his 
mature age to the payment of the arrears of his 
youth. Grown old, his generous heart shared with 
a prodigal hand the small savings he may have laid 
up in Holland during the few years he was the prime 
minister of the H. L. C. [Holland Land Co.], and 
probably in the same way evaporated the riches it 
has been repeatedly asserted that he had amassed 
in financial operations with his friend and protector, 
Talleyrand. I give this opinion only from reasoning 

" Henry Adams (ed.) Writings of Albert Gallatin, I, 142. See also A. de 
Cazenove, Quatre Siecles, 169-171. 

" "II mourut dans sa maison de la rue du Bac, No. 84, pavilion au fond du 
jardin." — A. de Cazenove, Quatre Siecles, p. 170, note. 

Introduction xiii 

deduced from the knowledge of Mr. Theophile's 
character, for as to the particulars of his life in Paris 
I know nothing but what I have been told, that he 
died poor, abandoned by Talleyrand."^* 

Such in brief outline, is the story of Theophile 
Cazenove's life. The city of Cazenovia, New York, 
named after him, is his permanent memorial in the 
United States, and the following Journal is his 
contribution to the story of American life in his day. 

In an account so packed with details as the 
following there must be some inaccuracies. Much 
of the data was necessarily taken from hearsay and 
written down later from memory. This limitation 
applies of course to practically all journals of the 
kind. Par exemple the distances from town to town 
as given by Cazenove are probably his own estimates 
or those given by local informants. These have been 
found to be inaccurate in a few instances but for the 
most part they are remarkably exact. Of course the 
least valuable parts for historical purposes are 
those entirely dependent upon hearsay and covering 
subjects with which Cazenove was not conversant. 
His notes on the history and organization of the 
Moravians contain inaccuracies. On the other hand 
his record of industrial and farming conditions lay 
within the field of his special interest and personal 
observation. His reports have been proved to be 
remarkably exact in many respects by the present 
writer in a recent journey over much of the same 
route. A minor but interesting incident was a call 
upon the present occupants of the Big Spring prop- 
erty (p. 43 below). The modern voyageur asked 
the lady of the house whether there were fish in the 

" Letter in possession of Helen Lincklaen Fairchild, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

xiv Cazenove Journal: 1794 

spring, and she answered, "Yes, trout." He re- 
marked again that the pool looked quite deep, and 
she replied, "Eighteen feet at the deepest." So the 
honor of the early journalist was vindicated even in 
matters of minute detail. 

There is little of literary merit in the Cazenove 
Journal because it represents only the rough notes 
taken along the way. In a letter to Amsterdam 
just after concluding the journey (Nov. 25, 1794) 
Cazenove wrote that he had taken extensive notes 
on the trip and hoped to write them up in finished 
form during the following winter. This was probably 
never done. At least no such copy of the journal 
has been found after a somewhat extended search on 
two continents. In lieu of literary merit, however, 
Cazenove pressed into his little note-book more solid 
fact to the square inch than exists in any journal of 
early American travel with which the present writer 
Is conversant, barring neither Rochefoucauld nor 
Schoepf from the lists. 

Nor is an elevation of thought lacking when 
Cazenove reflects occasionally on the social poverty 
of the hard, sordid life of the frontier, or on the 
peace and plenty that abounded in a rehgious 
community like that of the Moravians (p. 23 below). 

Some humor also has bubbled up occasionally to 
refresh the desert days of transcription and trans- 
lation. The story of Van Beverhoudt's cats is not 
bad (p. 6 below). The social scenes at Lancaster 
during sessions of Court are at least lively (p. 74 
below). Best of all is the unconscious drollery of 
Cazenove's body servant who kept the accounts. 
If he forgot the name of Chambersburg, what more 

Introduction xv 

suitable than to write it Roomtown! (See "Roume- 
tonne," p. 90 below.) 

In the following translation the conventional edi- 
torial signs have been used, the chief ones being 
brackets to enclose words supplied by the editor. It 
should be mentioned that a succession of three dots 
represents an omission on account of illegible words 
in the original manuscript, while a long dash indi- 
cates that Cazenove himself left the space blank. 

R. W. K. 

Haverford College, 

Haverford, Pennsylvania. 


Nezv Jersey 
1794 Page 

Oct. 21. Left New York i 

Oct. 21. Newark i 

Oct. 23. Springfield • 2 

Chatham 2 

Hanover 4 

Tro7 5 

Old Boonton 6 

Morristown 7 

Oct. 25. Black River 10 

Oct. 26. Long Valley 13 

Musconetcong River 14 

Wilson's Tavern 15 

Mclntyre's Tavern 15 


Easton 17 

Nazareth 19 

Bethlehem 23 

Allentown 27 

Ealer's Tavern 28 

Trexler's Tavern 30 

Kutztown 30 

Oct. 31. Schaeifer's Tavern 35 

Reading 36 

Sinking Spring 42 

Tavern (near Big or Allen Spring) 43 

Womelsdorf 44 

Myerstown 45 

Nov. 3. Lebanon 46 

Nov. 4. Hummelstown 49 

Nov. 5. Harrisburg 51 










Itinerary iivx 

Pennsylvania {continued) 

Silver Spring 55 

Carlisle 57 

Nov. 7. Mount Rock 61 

McCracken's Tavern 62 

Shippensburg 62 

Nov. 8. Chambersburg 64 

Thompson's Tavern 65 

Russell's Tavern 66 

Nov. 9. Abbottstown 6y 

Nov. 10. York 69 

Nov. 1 1 . Wrightsville 71 

Lancaster 72 

McCleland's Tavern 75 

Nov. 14. Downingtown 76 

Nov. 15. Fornistak's Tavern ' , 79 

Miller's Tavern 80 

Nov. 16. Philadelphia 80 



Page I of Manuscript 
New Jerseys 8 s [hillings] to the dollar 

On October 21st 1794, ^^^^ New York at 10 'clock, 
in a carriage drawn by 2 horses; my saddle horse, the 
coachman and Petit. 

Arrived at Newark, New Jersey, 8 miles distant, 
at 4 o'clock; lodged at Giffort's.^ 

Oct. 22. Meeting of the directors and stockholders 
of the Manufacturers' Company^ established in 
Paterson, 14 miles from Newark. N. B. — Learned 
that a large cloth-printing factory is going to be 
established in Pompton, situated 8 miles from Pat- 
erson, under the direction of Mr. John Davies 
[Daniels ?]. N.B. — ^They do not know who furnishes 
the money for this undertaking; they suspect D. 
Academy of Latin and English and reading and 
writing and French: prepares for college. 

90 scholars, £ 6 per year 

£ 25 room in town, boarding and les- 

A Liberty bonnet on a pole in the middle of the 
village; a furnace where cast-iron stoves are made. 

^ Probably at the inn kept by Archer Gifford. See Joseph Atkinson, History 
of Newark, New Jersey (Newark, 1878), p. 162; F. J. Urquhart, Short History of 
Newark. (Newark, 1916), p. 76. 

* This reference is to The Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures, 
which marked the economic beginnings of Paterson. 


2 Cazenove Journal: 1^94 

The city, very pretty, full of shoemakers, and shoe 
and boot factories, sell from ten to thirteen thousand 
dollars worth a year; undertook yesterday 20 thou- 
sand pairs of shoes for the army, at i dollar a pair. 
A factory for cotton, and wool and cotton stockings. 

Eight looms [tended] by young boys, [make] 
excellent white and blue stockings, but at 10 s., — a 
dollar and a quarter. 

Mrs. Capron keeps a girl's school of 20 scholars, 
boarders and day pupils.^ She teaches them French, 
Drawing, Sewing and Embroidery, for $10 a quarter. 
Tuition and board, laundry, heat, etc., cost £ 52 
or ^130 a year without the afternoon session, — 
arithmetic, music, geography; for these the ladies can 
go at small cost to the Academy and take lessons 
under the supervision of the Newark teachers. 

Someone broke into the carriage at night and 
carried off some pieces of luggage, — these were 
recovered because the parties were detected in the 


Page 2 of Manuscript 

Thursday [Oct.] 23, Left Newark at 9 o'clock in the 
morning. At Springfield, 9 miles, at 11 o'clock: 
pleasant journey; fresh cultivation. A stained wall- 
paper factory, a large and fine tan-yard; a liberty- 
bonnet on a pole in the center of the village. 
At Chatham, 3 miles, had dinner at Day's,^ very 
good stopping place, clean, a big Bible on the table 
under the mirror; district of l}4 miles square; from 
Springfield to Chatham the ground very bad, sand 

» Madame Capron had formerly conducted a school in Elizabeth, N. J. 
Her advertisements appear in The New Jersey Journal and Political Intelligencer, 
Apr. 27, 1791, p. 3; Woods's Newark Gazette, Nov. 6, 1793, p. 4- 

* Probably at Timothy Day's inn.— C. A. Philhower, Brief History of Chat- 
ham (N. Y., I9i4)> P- 36- 

New Jersey 3 

and broken stones; also what miserable huts! They 
say an acre is sold for £3, but there are few in- 
habitants; some buckwheat, corn, cider. At Chat- 
ham the valley is more level, the ground better and 
many pastures. The ground is easily sold for £10, 
or $25 per acre. The meadows yield i to i}4 tons 
per acre of hay, which sells at Newark for £5 a ton. 
Two oxen haul i ton. Here they raise the summer 
grains profitably, but wheat dies in the winter from 
dampness and frost. 

Generally the farms are from 200 to 250 acres; 
the farmers try mostly the raising of cattle; they 
sell their bulls, 4 years old, at from 50 to 60 dollars 
each; their cows, 4 years old, from 20 to 30 dollars 
each, for the Philadelphia and New York markets. 
The wood has almost all been cut down in this 
district; you have to pay 2 dollars a cord for walnut 
for burning; butter i shilling. A pair of good oxen 
for plowing bring £20 to £30, 50 to 75 dollars; a 
horse for farm work £25. There (as everywhere 
in Jersey) all the servants are black slaves; a good 
dependable negro, 18 to 25 years old, costs £100, 
or ^250; a good, dependable negro woman, 18 to 25 
years old, £70. You have to pay 5 shillings for a 
day's work by a white workman at harvest time; 3 
or 4 shillings in the Spring; wages of a white farm- 
hand, £30 to £40 per year, and you must also treat 
him politely. 

There was a general review of the militia of Essex 
County 5 miles from Newark; 8000 men under arms, 
well commanded, many in uniform, although several 
had gone with the expedition against the insurrection 
in Pennsylvania,^ mostly loyal Federalists. 

* Reference to the Whiskey Insurrection in western Penna. in 1794. 

4 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

Page J of Manuscript 

At Hanover 7 miles — stopped at Tapln's — pretty 
bad lodging. On approaching this village or district, 
the ground is better for cultivation, and less suited 
for pasturage; the hills higher, the plains broader, 
the declivities gentler. The good land sells for £7 
to £8 an acre; the medium for £4 to £5. The 
farms contain from 120 to 150 acres. They cultivate 
wheat, getting from 15 to 16 bushels per acre; corn 
50 to 60 bushels; buckwheat 30 to 40 bushels; rye 20 
to 24 bushels; cider. New York is a good market. 
More and more the farmers are anxious to raise 
cattle. Two oxen, £20 to £30. One milch cow 
£7. Plowing with oxen. Must feed the cattle 
from December to April. Sow wheat in August — 
harvest from 3 to 10 July; sow corn in June — harvest 
October 25; sow buckwheat in July, harvest October 


Mr. Patin [Tapin], the innkeeper, paid £450 for 
his 20 acre place; it is an inn formerly kept by Gray, 
and well-frequented. N. B. An English Bible on 
the table under the mirror. 

One half mile from Hanover is Mr. Charles Marre's 
paper-mill ;° he arrived with his wife and three 
children in 1791 from England where he worked in 
a paper-mill; he came to establish a paper-mill here; 
he is an excellent workman and makes the best 
paper that I have thus far seen come from a paper 
factory in the U. S. He sells the double sheet, very 
white and very firm, for 25 shillings a ream, composed 

* Melville Paper Mill, operated by Charles Marr. Advertisements of this 
mill appear in the newspapers of the period, — e.g. Woods's Newark Gazette, 
May 6, 1794, p. 3. Copy in Library of New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, 









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New Jersey 5 

of 20 quires of 24 sheets each, 18 quires extra good, 
but the top and bottom ones [In the package] poor. 
One could make contracts with him with confidence. 
He has difficulty in finding rags and has to go 20 to 
30 miles around to get them. There is only [sentence 
not completed]. 

Mr. Ferris [?] in Hanover sells excellent goose quills 
for two cents a dozen, or 16 cents, ij^ shillings, for 
100, ready for sharpening. 

Messrs. Forman, Durand,^ and , three 

residents ... of Philadelphia have bought, in this 
district, farms which they lease for one half of the 
produce and furnish half of the expenses: horses, 
cattle, Implements, etc. They paid £8 per acre and 
also bought some inferior wooded lands, next to their 
farms, at £4. 

Page 4. of Manuscript. 

27 miles — good road. 

24 Oct., Friday, left Tapln's, Hanover, at 9 o'clock 

in the morning. 

At Troy, 3 [miles], had luncheon and dinner at Mr. 
Beeverhoud's.^ He is a Dutchman who made his 
fortune in Ste. Croix and who settled in 1772 on this 
farm or plantation. There are 1650 acres, a good 
half of it in woods; he paid 12 thousand pounds 
sterling in 1768 for this land. He complains of the 
difficulty of finding workmen and although a large 

^ In the land records in the court house at Morristown, N. J., there is a deed 
of Apr. 22, 1794, transferring a parcel of land to Lewis Forman and John P. 
Durand. — Deeds, vol. B, p. 311. 

* Probably the Lucas Van Beverhoudt mentioned frequently in the early 
land records of Morris County. See also references to large, manorial estates, 
among them "the Beaverwick, near Troy, owned by Lucas Van Beaverhoudt", 
— in History of Morris County, N. J. (N. Y., 1882), p. 218. 

6 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

part of the land which is not woods (forest), is grass 
land, he must go shares In hay-making with those 
who cut the hay. He has a kind of small stud. He 
would like very much to sell his property, but there 
is no buyer. This district is not pleasant, the 
ground full of stones, and winter wheat does not 
grow well. All the buildings are in as bad a condition 
as the health of the kind Mr. and Mrs. Beeverhoud 
who received me cordially and gave me a pretty 
good dinner; Miss van Beeverhoud had made the 
apple pie. Mrs. van Beeverhoud, born in Ste. 
Croix, was always cold and did not leave the fire- 
place from September until June; she had 9 cats 
whose company enlivened the dinner, for Mr. van 
Beeverhoud had them put outside by 2 or 3 little 
negroes who went on all fours to chase the cats and 
made them yowl by catching them, but no sooner 
was a cat put out than another one came in; they 
finally stayed in and mewed for their customary 

At Boun Town [Boonton]^ 2}4 [miles] at the iron- 
works of Mr. J. S. Faesch.^° He came from Basle 
in 1770. He keeps these iron- works with Mr. 
Ogden^° from Newark; the pig iron is made 10 miles 
further up, at Mount Hope, where the mines are. 
The miners are paid so that a hard-working miner 
can earn 10 s., i34 dollars, a day. The forge for 
making iron bars is double; a fire and 2 hammers. 
Bellows of new construction, kinds of iron boilers 
whose lids are pushed by pistons up to 

' This place is now known as Old Boonton, and is about two miles southwest 
of the present Boonton. 

^° Probably John Jacob Faesch and Samuel Ogden. History of Morris 
County, New Jersey (N. Y., 1882), pp. 280-281; also I. S. Lyon, Historical 
Discourse on Boonton (Newark, 1873), pp. 14-15. 

New Jersey 7 

Page 5 of Manuscript 
32^ miles 

up to the further end, and from there the air passes 
through tin pipes into an iron pipe which conducts 
the air into the fire. In another workshop the bars 
are made red hot and pass through a roller that 
flattens them and from there they pass through 
another roller where the plates are cut into rods 
suitable to make nails. They sell these iron rods 
for £42, or 105 dollars, for a barrel of 2000 pounds. 
Mr. Faesh lives there in a very rustic and stony 
place, in order to take advantage of a stream at the 
bottom of the valley. A half mile away [is] a church 
where they preach in Dutch every two weeks. 

At Morris' Town, 8 miles, stopped at O'Hara's;^^ 
good lodging; the land of the neighborhood: high 
hills, stones, medium [soil]. The master of the 
house had gone with the militia against the rebels 
in Pennsylvania^^ although the absence of the master 
from an inn is very prejudicial to his interests. He 
had bought the house last July with 6 acres for £800. 
The house is of wood and fairly good; agreeably 
situated, next to the church and the court-house 
and in the center of the village or town. A cord of 
wood is obtainable here for 10 shillings for oak, 14 
to 15 for walnut; salt 10 to 12 s. a bushel; butter i}i 
s. a pound; butcher's meat 4^ cents [a pound]; for 
boarding i.e. lodging, food, and a single room, 2 
dollars per week, and 2^ dollars per week with heat 

" George O'Hara kept a famous inn at the head of South Street, Morris- 
town, during the Revolution. A picture of it is in P. H. Hoffman, History of the 
Arnold Tavern (Morristown, 1903), p. 23. See also land records in court house, 
Morristown, Deeds, vol. A, p. 283. 

" Reference to the Whiskey Insurrection in western Penna. in 1794. 

8 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

and light in the room; a workman easy to find for 
4 s. a day. 

Many free negroes who hire out by the month in 
the summer [for] £3 ; and 3 s. a day. The free negro 
women are hired for 4 s. per week. Few houses to 
be found for rent, almost every house inhabited by 
the owner. 

Chicken I s. each; duck ij^ s.; turkey 4 to 6 s. 
Flour now (October i, 1794) sells for 4 dollars per 
100 pounds, or 7 dollars for a barrel of 180 pounds. 
In April and May the same for 2^4 dollars, [or] 20 s., 
per 100 pounds. 

The free negroes are quarrelsome, intemperate, 
lazy, and dishonest; their children are still worse, 
without restraint or education. You do not see one 
out of a hundred that makes good use of his freedom, 
or that can make a comfortable living, own a cow, a 
horse; they remain in their cabins where they live 
miserably, barely raise some corn, but do not rise to 
anything, — are worse oif than when they were slaves, 
although the race is open to them the same as to 
white people. 

Bricks to be had at the brick factory, a mile from 
here, at 32 s. a thousand. 

Boards, one inch thick, 10 s. the 100 feet. 
do J:4 inch thick 8 s. the 100 feet. 
do 2 inch thick 12 s. the 100 feet. 

Lime from the kiln, delivered here, 2 s. per bushel. 

A mason, per day, 8 s. 

A carpenter, per day, 6 to 7 s. 

New Jersey 9 

Page 6 of Manuscript 
40^ miles. 
Morristown, continued. 

A large hall In the village, as In all large villages, 
for dancing In winter. 

In this district a farm can be bought for £5 an 
acre, cash. Contains 150 acres : 40 acres with enough 
wood for the use of the farm; 20 [acres] meadow, or 
pasture, yielding i to ij^ tons [of hay, per acre]; 
orchard of apples and peaches; 80 tillable [acres] for 
corn, yielding 20 to 25 [bushels per acre]; little wheat; 
fair farmer's house; a barn, milk-house, and cider 

There was last year, 1793, a great mortality among 
horses (yellow water), so a good farm horse costs 
now £30 to £40; a cow £7; two oxen suitable for 
ploughing, £22 to £24. 

In the village, the land, well located, with lOO 
feet street frontage, sells for £100 an acre [?]. 

There Is a little, public subscription library. 

([Side endorsement:] A stage [?] ("chariot") 
twice a week from Elizabeth T[own] to Morris 
T[own] [and] vice versa.) 

A school for the study of Reading, Writing, 
English, at 2 dollars per term; Latin, Greek, 3 dollars; 
French, 4 dollars: 9 dollars for everything for three 
months; £36 or ^90 per year. 

25 persons . . . 

A new Presbyterian church; an Anabaptist 
[church]; a Methodist [church] further away in the 
country; neither a Quaker nor a Catholic [church]; 
no printing establishment; many distilleries where 
spirits are extracted from cider. This spirituous 
liquor costs 7 s. a gallon. 

10 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4. 

The average farm from 150 to 200 acres. 

A good prison; no criminals; 3 for debts. 

The situation of the principal part of Morris Town 
Is very pleasant, on the top of a hill and on an 
esplanade, well leveled; a large and beautiful church; 
court-house; good houses on the square. 

A high pole with the Liberty Bonnet in the middle 
of the square. Almost all the little boys of the 
village have a tri-colored French ribbon on their 
hats, put up to it by some people. 

The Hessian Fly has been in these districts a 
great deal. 

The school is very roomy; about 80 scholars, 
whom I found studying and in good order in two 
large rooms, united for special exercises or also for 
little festivities. 

Mr. Gilpin Russel, who is principal of the college, 
is well educated and fine looking. He had a little 
theater built, where the scholars play little comedies. 
The man who teaches French and geography . . . 
born in San Domingo [?], also well educated. Mr. 
Russel takes children into his boarding-school for 
^60 per year, or to board and lodge them in town, 
^i per week. 

The situation is very healthful, and there is a 
little stream at the foot of the hill. 

Page y of Manuscript 
40>^ [miles] 

October 25, arrived at Black River, at Drake's; 
it is the center of the township, where town-meetings 
are held. 

Black River. [Stopped] with Drake [at the] Sign 

New Jersey II 

of Washington, at Black River T[own], 12 miles, 
where I put up, fair [accommodations]; it is not a 
village — ^farms scattered in the district. The ground 
from M [orris] T[own] to this place very broken; 
high hills and not very good [soil]; partly uncultivable 
because of the sand or the declivity; partly large 
level fields, pasture, or corn, buckwheat. The 
hollows between the hills make fairly good pasture; 
especially [are there] many large orchards of apple 
trees, the product of which is important for the 
farmer, who generally distills his cider. 

They calculate that 8 bushels of apples make i 
barrel of cider; the barrel is of 32 gallons, and these 
32 gallons of cider make 4 gallons of spirits, which 
they sell for 6 s. or ^ dollar a gallon. 
([Side endorsement:] Since Jersey farmers have 
started to distill their cider, it is impossible to get 
any of it unless you pay what the distillery pays 
them. Today they ask 50 to 60 s [hillings] per 
hogshead, which a few years ago you got for 20. 
A hogshead measures 104 [to io61i\ gallons.) 

An acre of land, planted with from 65 to 70 apple 
trees, 20 feet apart, produces in good years 250 
bushels of apples. This great produce encourages 
every farmer to enlarge his orchard. 

The land on these heights and meadows, cleared, 
and soil not very good, generally in farms of 200 
acres, sells for £3 [an acre], and the best ones, without 
many stones, for £4 an acre; in these 200 acres one 
has about 100 cultivable acres; 4 and up to 10 in 
orchard; 30 in meadow, yielding i ton per acre; a 
farmer's house, and out-houses. Corn yields on 
the average 10 bushels [per acre]; barley 10 bushels; 
buckwheat 15 to 18 bushels. 

12 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

They enrich the land with lime, which is abundant, 
and the [manure] of their cattle — and then [they 
get] a little wheat, which yields from 10 to 12 bushels 
per acre. 

2 oxen for ploughing, £20; I horse ditto, 25 to 
£30; at present very dear. 

A Presbyterian [t] church and i school. 

When the spirits extracted from cider is old, it is 
not unhealthful, but it is so when new. 

Much emigration (because of the poor land) to the 
Genessee country and a few to Kentucky. 

However, the farmers become very rich in this 
district, but they use their surplus not to improve 
their places, but to buy more land. Mr. Wells, a 
farmer near here, has 400 acres contiguous to his 
residence, and more than 1000 acres ("1000 ar- 
pents")^^ in the neighborhood. Here you easily find 
farmers [who will farm] for half the produce of the 
land, and the farmer furnishes the cattle, etc. 

A workman at harvest time, 6 s [hillings] per day — 
at other times 4 — now, in October, you find some for 
3 s. 

There is a great export of spirits of cider to New 
York, and from there to the south; and the excise, 
instead of stopping the distilleries, has attracted 
attention to the advantages of this manner of making 
the best of this poor ground [for grain ?] and so good 
for apple trees — each farmer has been planting 
nurseries for two years; so they are much pleased 
with the bargain. 

"A French "arpent" is equal to about one and a half English acres. It is 
quite probable however that Cazenove in this case and some others uses 
"arpent" and "acre" interchangeably (as he certainly does on MS. page 15, 
p. 24 below) to mean an English acre. 

New Jersey 13 

Page 8 of Manuscript 
525^ [miles] 
Black River Town. 

This township is . . . miles long by . . . miles wide. 

There are some brickfields selling bricks, 1000 
bricks for 30 s., to those who call for them. 

Lime sells for i s. a bushel at the furnace. As 
there is neither town nor village, provisions have to 
be obtained from the farm. 

Few negroes in this district. 

This district has many iron mines. There are 75 
iron-works within a 5-mile radius of this place. 

As it is Saturday, the farmers of the neighborhood 
come, according to custom, and gather at the inn to 
talk and drink. There were about fifteen, although 
the weather was very bad and the night dark, which, 
with bad roads and heavy drinking, is the cause of 
numerous accidents. In this section all the men are 
remarkably tall. 

The 26th-left Black River Town at 9 o'clock. At 
Van House Tavern, in Dutch [German] Valley,^'* 
6 miles; very bad lodging; hilly road, bad and stony 
ground except in the little valleys between the very 
high hills. Here the valley is wider and well culti- 
vated. Mr. Wyse^^ has a farm here, 300 acres, with a 
good stone house, which he offers to sell for £1400, 
([Bottom endorsement:] but the ground has been 
overworked and cannot produce any more.) The 
valley is very pretty and is crossed by the South 
branch of the Raritan River; but it is not navigable. 

"The name was changed from German Valley to Long Valley in 1918. 
1^ Probably Philip Weise. See T. F. Chambers, Early Germans of New Jersey 
(189s), 148. 

14 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

Miller's Tavern,^*^ 8 miles, ([Side endorsement:] on 
the Musconekon [Musconetcong] Creek. Here they 
already count the dollar Ve as in Pennsylvania.) 
Not good lodging. From Dutch [German] Valley 
you have to climb a very steep mountain and the 
road is bad; but you can stay here if there is need; it 
is an isolated house in the valley, on a 200-acre farm, 
which Miller bought for £600 in 1789, where it was 

all woods. Now he is offered £1000 for it. Mr. 

from Philadelphia has 500 uncultivated acres 

there and Mr. Rutherford 1000. It is not worth £2. 
There are many . . . ; a few wild ducks here. 

All the pioneers who go from the East to Pittsburg, 
Kentucky, etc., take this road and through Easton. 
N.B. One could have an agent here when the settle- 
ments begin in Pennsylvania." Miller told me that 
every year hundreds of families pass, emigrating from 
New England to Kentucky and Ohio. From Black 
River here you see very few farms and almost every- 
thing is woods and uncultivated land, except the 
valley between the two ranges of mountains, which 

Page g of Manuscript 
66}4 [miles] 

you cross; there the land is pretty good as far as 
Easton and sells for £3 to £4 an acre for a 200- 
acre farm, % of which is in the valley and }/^ on the 

Ten bushels wheat, 20 bushels corn, 15 bushels 
buckwheat, are counted on in this district for a 

" Probably Andrew Miller who kept an inn in this vicinity during the 
Revolution, and lived until 1829. — Snell, Hist, of Sussex and Warren Counties, 
N. J. (1881), 733. — See also Book B, of Deeds, p. 353, at Newton, N. J. 

'^ This refers to the settlements which the Holland Land Co. hoped to 
promote upon its lands in Penna. 

New Jersey 15 

harvest. They use little manure. The market in 
East Town, however, is near and very busy, since 
from there the produce goes to Philadelphia by the 
Delaware River. 

At Wilson's Tavern,^^ 7 miles, bad saloon on the 
main road. N. B. The farmers buy as much land 
around here as they can, not so much, for cultivation 
as to . . . who send their cattle and horses to 
pasture in the uncultivated woods. 

At Makentayer's Tavern,^^ 5 miles, where I stayed; 
bad inn. The road from Miller's here is fair, less 
hilly but very stony, and with much unfertile land 
on the heights. N. B. I took from Morristown the 
upper road which is the shorter, but not so good; 
and the innkeepers there are chiefly farmers, who 
run hotels as a side-line. 

Met here two men from New Jersey coming back 
from the army — one was a wheelwright and the other 
a harness-maker. They could not endure the mili- 
tary hardships and all they told me strengthened my 
opinion that you need a standing army to keep good 
order in an extended and thickly populated district. 
These two militiamen complained of the great in- 
convenience of leaving their families and especially 
their trades, which lost customers while the boss 
was away. They also felt the great annoyance of 
passing suddenly from the comfort of domestic life 
to the deprivations, harshness, fatigues, and inclem- 
ency of weather in camp life, tramping in the rain, 

"Probably Joseph Wilson's inn at the present Washington, N. J.— See 
Snell, Hist, of Sussex and JVarren Counties, N. J. (1881), p. 719. 

19 Probably John Mclntyre who owned land and kept a tavern at the present 
New Village, N. J.— Book L, of Deeds, pp. 6 and 9, at Newton, N. J. See also 
Snell, Hist, of Sussex and IVarren Counties, N. J. (1881), p. 709. 

1 6 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

etc.; and yet they praised the abundance of food 
and the fine weather they had in general. 

The lack of neatness and of furniture in the farm- 
houses, the lack of gardens and improvements . . . 
delapidated state of the vineyards which are, however, 
large and productive, comes from the lack of taste 
and sensibility on the part of the farmers. The 
wives have the care of the house, and besides they 
have a number of children, 5, 6, 7, 8. So they have 
more work than they can do, with no help, except 
one or two old and dispirited colored women. That 
is why the wives are indifferent, tired. With the 
impossibility of having a neat or comfortable home, 
and the lack of seeing anything neat and comfortable. 
It is plain how, from father to son, is passed on this 
astounding indifference to 

Page 10 of Manuscript 
yS}4 miles 

the comforts of life. Fortunately, vanity plays its 
part and obliges the farmers' wives to be well dressed, 
often above their condition, on Sunday at church. 
Without the wise institution of a day of rest, and 
church service, may be the farmers' wives would 
never wash. This lack of home comfort obliges the 
farmer, who wants to enjoy himself to go to the 
neighboring saloons to talk about politics and to 
drink heavily; so having no opportunity to use their 
extra money in improvements, they buy more land 
around, and the pride of being considered a large 
land-owner is the only thing that rouses them; except 
for a few Inland inhabitants, who have lived for a 
long time, from father to son, on their farms (but 

Pennsylvania i? 

those of that kind live in or very near the cities) 
most of them have, either themselves or their fathers, 
come to America from Germany, Scotland, and 
expecially Ireland, poor, from among the poorest 
country-people, and spent their first years in servi- 
tude (as is the custom for that class) from 2 to 6 
years, and then become mechanics or farmers, and 
brought up their children as they were brought up. 
October 27th— left the bad lodging of Makentayer. 
[Arrived] at Easton town, of Pennsylvania, on the 
Delaware, 8 miles. Stopped at Opp's-° at the sign 
of the Golden Swan, very good lodging. 

This little town is pretty; well laid out for the 
main square and the rows of streets, partly lined 
with good houses of blue stone, abundant in the 
neighborhood. Easton is situated at the junction 
of the Delaware and Lehigh Rivers, in a little valley 
at the foot of the mountain. 

The inhabitants are all Germans: the church is 
large and the Lutheran and Presbyterian services 
are alternately preached, but both in German. The 
court-house is fine and very large:— there is a prison 

Page II of Manuscript 
the construction of which accounts for the frequent 
escapes of the prisoners. A vaulted brick building 
to keep the county records: Mr. G. Craig^^ who is its 
prothonotary is a handsome man, and Mrs. Craig 
gives an opportunity to notice that city society 
people, who are isolated in a little country-town, 

20 Jacob 0pp.— Easton tavern licenses, I794-I79S, in Northampton County 
Papers (MSS.), vol. VII, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

21 Initial "G" for the French "GuiUaume". Wm. Craig was prothonotary 
at this ^tdod.-Prothonotary Papers, 1783-1S31, in Northampton County 
Papers (MSS.), vol. XVI, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

1 8 Cazenove Journal: 1794. 

are the same In every country. She received me for 
tea elegantly dressed and she complained without 
ceasing of being deprived of the pleasures of Phila- 

Mr. Sitgreaves," who lives here, has just been 
nominated for Congress for this district, North- 
ampton, Bucks, and Cumberland counties. He is 
a clever and very eloquent lawyer; his Federalist 
principles kept him away from any post until now, 
but since each district must appoint a representative 
to Congress, and there was no other to do credit to 
the county, Mifflin's party backed him for this 

There Is here a printing-establishment of only one 
form, and which prints only a German newspaper 
that Is published every Wednesday; the subscribers 
pay a dollar a year, and 600 copies are delivered In 
the city and neighborhood. The printer is at the 
same time printer, poet, and compositor. 

In one of the stores there were many books well 
bound. They were all Bibles, Psalms and Chris 
Coppe's-^ sermons, printed in Germany, and w^hich 
sell very well here and in the vicinity, where the 
people are very religious. 

The facilities for shipping provisions from here to 
Philadelphia, by the Delaware river, bring here the 
produce of the neighborhood, especially in winter, 
when there is snow; and some merchants (Mr. 
Plersol) pay the farmers for the grain they bring, 
according to the price in Philadelphia, only 6 pence 

^ Samuel Sitgreaves, a Representative in Congress 1795-1798. Biographical 
Congressional Directory (1913), p. 1000. 

2' Probably J. B. Koppe, whose sermons were published at Gottingen in 1783. 
— Nouvelle Biographie Generale (1861), 28: 79. 

Pennsylvania 19 

("deniers") less for a bushel. At the present time 
they pay lis. for a bushel of wheat and 60 s., or 
8 dollars, for a barrel of 180 lbs. of flour. 

The freight from Easton to Philadelphia Is 6 pence 
per bushel, and 34 dollar for a barrel of flour, and 
the boats make the trip in from 24 to 30 hours. To 
go up the river takes 3 days and the 100 lb. weight 
costs y2 a dollar, which is as expensive as the price 
of the stage from Philadelphia to Easton. 

There are several locations advantageous for mills; 
in a radius of 2 miles there are 7 flour mills, each one 
working with 3 pairs of millstones. 

Page 12 of Manuscript 
7S-}4 [miles] 

Easton, Mordacay Peirsol, merchant and real 
estate agent, knows the neighborhood. He Is also a 
commission merchant In grain, asking ^2%. One 
must send J/2 In small notes of the 3 banks and )4 
coin. In December, . . . January and February, 
the best buying time — when there is a great deal of 
snow — Is able to supply at least 10,000 bushels and 
store It until spring, — April or March, to go down 
the river. The storage, shipping, and freight to 
Philadelphia amount to 9 pence per bushel. For 
the price of provisions, land, lots, etc., see one of 
the printed papers filled in at Easton. 

The 28 of October, left Easton at 1 1 o'clock. 

At Nazareth, 8 miles, stopped with John Grlmser;^^ 
neat lodging, under Moravian direction. The land 
along the road Is fairly cultivated, but there are few 

^*John Kremser. — ^Tavern licenses, I794.-I795, in Northampton County 
Papers (MSS.), vol. VII, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

20 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

farms because of the difficulty of finding water in 
this district. It is necessary to dig very deeply and 
search for a long time. 

Morse's Geography, page , describes this place. 

The Nazareth settlement is entirely Moravian and 
is a part of this large congregation which Zinzendorf 
established all over the world. This one was begun 
in 1763 on a carefully chosen piece of land of 1800 
acres. The men's and the women's houses, the 
Church, everything is plain and well built; part of 
the land is cultivated by 3 farmers who give J^ of the 
income to the Intendant of the Congregation. There 
are about 30 houses, among which are 2 large build- 
ings where the women live and where the Church 
and College are. There is a rich spring of most 
excellent water, which, by means of underground 
pipes, furnishes all the houses with water. In the 
backyards there are well built gutters to let the water 
run into the meadows, which makes them a rich 
pasture. N. B. Good example to follow. 

In the Boys' College, about 36 boarders, who 
learn reading, writing, ciphering, and German, 
English, and Latin. They learn 

Page I J of Manuscript 
Nazareth 83-3^ miles 

also French, but from a teacher who cannot speak 
it and has a German pronunciation. All of the 36 
boarders sleep in two adjoining rooms; each one has 
his bed, but there is hardly enough room for the 36 
beds and the ceiling is low. The terms are £25 
under 12 years old, and £30 above. I did not 
think this school a very good one; however there 

Pennsylvania 2 1 

were 22 names on the waiting list, the building being 
too small to take more than 36. The Church is as 
large as that of Zeyst [Zeist, Netherlands]; a very 
good organ. About 500 men, women, and children 
are leaving [?] the Nazareth settlement. 

Mr. Tillofson,-^ the General Intendant, is very 

There is a little isolated building where the dead 
are kept for three days, and are often examined to 
prevent the burial of those who might not be dead 
(excellent measure that ought to be followed in 
ever>^ U. S. city where they have the custom of 
burying the dead within 24 hours.) 

In the woman's house, there is an apartment 
upstairs with 40 beds for the ladies, and the ceiling 
is so low that it must be very unhealthful. 

Everything is the property of the Unity or Con- 
gregation whose seat is in Herrnhut, Saxony, where 
the temporal and spiritual affairs of the Congregation 
and every Settlement are managed by a council of 
12 heads, chosen by the delegates of the various 
establishments once every 7 years, but besides this 
choice, it is necessary for them to be confirmed by 
lot, — what they call "chosen by the Lord." 

The innkeeper manages the inn for the settlement. 
He is kept and receives £30 per year, with a bonus 
of from £8 to £10 if business has been good. 

The surplus made by the settlement, after all 
expenses are paid, is sent to Germany to the 12 heads 
who render a statement to the generals. There are 
in the United States eleven settlements, each one 
sending its accounts directly to the 12. There are 

^ Probablv Nils Tillofsen. — Levering, Hist, of Bethlehem, 569, note. 

22 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

3 bishops In the United States, i In Bethlehem, i in 
LItltz, and i In North Carolina. 

Two miles from Nazareth, there Is another settle- 

Page I-/, of Manuscript 
83K [miles] 

of Moravians called Christian Spring; It Is a fine 
farm of 1500 acres In a beautiful valley, remarkably 
well cultivated by about 64 Moravians who do the 
farm work under the direction of Count Golgosskl,^^ 
a Pole related to ZInzendorf. This settlement was 
begun In 1753. There Is a mill, a brewery, and 
everything needed for a large and Isolated farm. 
Those who till It are some poor German Moravians 
sent by the heads on condition of working for their 
keep, but now they want to be paid and they are 
given £16 wages a year besides their keep. This 
settlement Is In the department of the one at Naza- 
reth. At the evening-prayer, In Nazareth, they 
sing hymns beautifully and news from St. Thomas 
is read, relating to the great tornado there has been 
there, telling of the anxieties and damage done to 
the Moravian brothers of St. Thomas, and how much 
the Lord helped them in their distress. 

Good land In the neighborhood sells for £15; fair, 
10 to 8; poor, 3 to 2 £. 

I paid Mr. Tilofson," manager of the Moravian 
settlement at Nazareth, $15 for a hogshead of the 
good cider they make there; at Christmas he will 
send it to Mr. M. Plersol, at Easton, who will send 

^ Reference probably to George Golkowsky. — Levering, Hist, of Bethlehem, 
214, note. 

" See note 25. 

Pennsylvania 23 

it to me to Philadelphia, care of Harrisson and 
Sterret, -^ by water or land. 

The directors of the Moravian settlement in the 
U. S. wrote to the 12 in Germany, advising them to 
sell in a lump the Christian Spring establishment, 
with land, buildings, etc. They expect an answer 
this year. 

When you observe what peace and abundance 
there are in these Moravian settlements, you see how 
much better superstition and enthusiasm are than 
the dissoluteness and laziness always produced by 
irreligion. There is no choice for the masses, they 
must be bigoted or be the prey of their most vicious 

Page 75 of Manuscript 
83K [miles] 

Left Nazareth at 10 o'clock, October 29. 

Bethlehem, 10 miles, stopped at the sign of the 
Golden Sun,-^ good lodging. . . . land which does 
not belong to the Moravian Community in this dis- 
trict. The farms are generally from 100 to 200 or 
300 acres. Every year the farms diminish in size. 
8 miles from here is the Irish settlement, where the 
Irish came in 1740, while the Moravians settled at 
Bethlehem; but the Irish became poor and their 
places have gradually been filled by Germans who 
are thriving there. 

Farms from 100 to 200 acres. Price of farms an 

2^ Harrison and Sterret, merchants, 3 Walnut Street. — Philadelphia Direc' 
tory, 1794, p. 65. 

2' The old Sun Inn is still in active operation, 1921. — See Reichel, The Old 
Sun Inn (1873). 

24 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4. 

£13 to 15 for the best, £6 to 8 for the fair. . .£3 for 
the poor; then, 100 to 150 [acres] cultivated; 50 in 
woods; house and barn fair. 

The German farmers are beginning to sow a great 
deal of clover and turnips, and plant large apple- 
orchards. An acre produces 15 bushels of wheat, 20 
bushels of corn. Workmen or laborers, scarce, — 4 
to 5 shillings a day. 

From Easton to Nazareth and from Nazareth to 
Bethlehem, as far as you can judge from the road 
(often very high) generally the land is still uncul- 
tivated, at least not Vs is culitvated, but the farms 
you see are large enough and have very large fields of 
wheat, corn and buckwheat; the hollows are good 
pasture; the soil is sand and clay; the woods, oak 
trees; the houses are stone, and several of logs and 
stone. All the inhabitants are German; in the coun- 
try-churches, each Sunday, a Lutheran and a Pres- 
byterian sermon, in German, are alternately preached. 

The settlement of the Moravians in Bethlehem is 
situated in a very large valley where the Congre- 
gation owns a district of about 5000 acres. It was 
begun in 1742, and until 1762 the Moravians there 
were merged in a common family, whose every indi- 
vidual was working for the Community, and was 
kept by it; but since then this full surrender of for- 
tune no longer occurs. Each one of the brothers and 
sisters keeps his property and is paid for his work. 
But the land, buildings, mills, etc., — everything is the 
property of the Community, which rents the 5 farms, 
into which the 5000 acres are subdivided. 



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Pennsylvania 2$ 

Page i6 of Manuscript 

and supplies the mills, stores, the tan-yard, the 
bakery, the school, the brewery, etc., for the benefit 
of the Community, which gives so much a year to 
the brother directing each establishment. These 
brothers keep a strict account of the expenses and 
produce, and hand the profits over to the 4 elders 
who kee^D all accounts and send to the 12 in Herrnhut 
in monthly payments 4% as interest on the sums 
used for the purchase of land and the erecting of 
mills, etc., which have been successively provided by 
Germany. The rest of the income pays for the 
expenses of the heads, the pensions to the poor 
brothers and sisters, etc. 

So there are in Bethlehem one large flour-mill, one 
large lumber mill, one large oil press, one large 
tobacco factory, one large factory to full cloth, a 
boarding-school, where there are 80 students from all 
parts of the States, 4 large farms, i large farm with 
an enclosure where 40 cows [are kept], a brewery, a 
seminary for men, one for widows and one for girls, 
a bakery, a tan-yard, a store where all kinds of 
merchandise from England and from Germany are 
sold at retail, a large inn for strangers; shoemakers, 
tailor, locksmith and carpenter. 

All these establishments work for the Congregation, 
which allots their supervision to some brother and 
sister, to whom so much a year is given and who then 
pay their own expenses and board in the seminaries. 
There is one general Intendant, and the 4 elders 
among whom is the bishop have the superintendence. 
Now the number of Moravians, men, women, and 

26 Cazenove Journal: I7g4 

children, has come down to about 400. And the 
total number in all their settlements in Pennsylvania 
is not more. than 1200. There were more before, 
but the Congregation purchased 100,000 acres of 

Page 17 of Manuscript 

land in North Carolina and established 8 settlements 
where there are 2000 Moravians, also one in Mount 
Hope^° in Jersey, of few members. There are 3 
Moravian bishops in the United States. 

A rich spring, at the bottom of the valley, supplies 
every house with water; the water is sent up into a 
tank and pushed through a pipe to a height of 120 
feet, by means of 3 pistons worked by a wheel put in 
motion by the water current. 

Twelve sisters are constantly busy, in a house on 
the river, washing and ironing the clothes of the 
boarders and the sisters and brothers. I doubt if 
the education given by the Moravian teachers, who 
do not know life, is very useful to form character, 
but they teach needle-work, painting, music, reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. However, there are 80 
school girls, daughters of good families of different 
States and the reputation of this school is such that 
there were 80 names on its waiting list. The boarders 
are divided among 6 rooms, not large, and overheated 
by large German stoves. They sleep in two rooms, 
with low ceilings; thus there are 40 beds in each 
room and not a fire-place, only a small air-hole in 
the middle of the ceiling — nothing could be more 
unhealthful. Every Friday evening and Sunday the 
boarders go to the Moravian Church. I shall never 

'" The correct name is Hope, rather than Mount Hope. 

Pennsylvania 27 

put in the Bethlehem School any girl for whom I am 
responsible. The tuition, board and other items go 
to £50 or 133 dollars a year per girl; the food is 
good, but not extra. Everybody in Bethlehem has 
dinner at twelve. 

The Bishop told me the Congregation now counts 
16000 members: Indians, savages, negroes, etc., 
(heathen) who have been baptised by the missionary 
brothers: among these are about 1200 Indians of 
North America. 

When I asked the bishop if he would sell land or a 
house to someone who, without following their 
doctrine, would come to settle peaceably in Beth- 
lehem, he told me they only admit those who promise 
to follow the rules and creed of the fratrum unitas. 

Page 18 of Manuscript 
93~/^ [miles] 
October 30th left Bethlehem at — o'clock. 

At Allen's Town, 6 miles, — stopped at Egher's, 
fair [lodging]. It is a pretty town of about 80 to 
100 houses, 2 German churches, a Lutheran one 
which is called "the Church," and the other Pres- 
byterian. It is a settlement begun in 1761 by Mr. 
Allen,^^ Attorney General in Philadelphia, and now 
his grand daughters' property, the 3 Misses Allen. 
The situation of the town is high and healthful; the 
streets are well laid out. The ladies sell the city 
lots 60 feet front by 200 depth for £25 besides being 
subjected to a perpetual quit-rent of 9 shillings. The 
land around the town is theirs and is divided into 

21 The founder of Allentown was William Allen, for some time Chief Justice 
of Pennsylvania. 

28 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

6 farms, which they rent to German farmers for a 
dollar an acre per year. 

On approaching the town, near the River Lehigh 
and on a crest, the land is more cultivated and the 
farms nearer each other. On the other side of the 
Lehigh River there was a farm of 80 acres, ^4 of it 
cleared, which was offered for sale at £700 or £9 
an acre. A mile away from Allen Town, a beautiful 
farm situated on a crest, on the slope of a hill, could 
be bought for £3000. There were 240 acres, 140 
of which were in tillage and pasture, and 100 acres 
in woods, besides 60 acres in woods 2 miles away; 
the house and barn were good and very well kept. 
It had produced that year 12 bushels of wheat per 
acre, which had been sold the day before to the 
Allen's Town dealer for 10 s./6 a bushel. 

At Baler's Tavern^'^ — 3 miles — lodging tolerable, in 
case of necessity; isolated on the high way. Ealer 
is a farmer and owns 264 acres in Allen Town and 

Beef, mutton, and veal, 5 pence a pound; wheat, 
10/6 a bushel; salt, 616 a bushel; butter, i shilling a 
pound, is bought here and sent to Philadelphia; 
walnut wood, 15 s. a cord; oak wood, 10 s. a cord. 
It is easy to get workmen at harvest time for 4 s. a 
day. In general, the size of the farms is from 200 to 
300 acres. Price of a farm of 250 acres £10 to 
£15 an acre, with 120 [acres] cultivated, 30 pasture, 
100 woods; house and barn made of stone of the 
neighborhood. Much clover is sown. You find 
land entirely uncultivated, [with] woods, bushes, to 

'* Peter Ealer, Whitehall Township. — ^Tavern licenses, 1794-1795, in Nor- 
thampton County Papers (MSS.), vol. VII, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Pennsylvania 29 

be bought for £2 or £3 [per acre]. An acre yields 
12 to 18 bushels of wheat — new land 25 bushels; 40 
bushels corn, but only from pure seed [?]; 20 to 28 
bushels buckwheat, according to the weather or rain 

Ground limestone. 

Page 19 of Manuscript 
i02->^ [miles] 

Rotation: I. Wheat. 

2. Oats or corn or buckwheat. 

3. Clover. 

4. Clover and plowing to sow. 

They fertilize with lime — about 40 bushels per 
acre — which is found in abundance in the country 
around, — and with farm manure. 

Plaster of Paris is good to grow clover, but its 
price has gone up very much since the war; before 
it was }4 dollar a bushel and now is i dollar a bushel 
and they have to go and get it themselves in Phila- 
delphia. For clover they manure in the proportion 
of 4 bushels per acre. 

They are all German farmers In this district; 
they are diligent and thrifty and become rich; 'few 
vegetables besides cabbage, potatoes, and turnips. 

They plow with 2 horses; they generally have 2 
and 3 teams. You have to pay from £20 to 25 for 
a good plow-horse. They are beginning to use oxen 
which are bought for £18 [?] to £20 a pair. 

Ealer has to pay, for 264 acres, size of his farm, 
this year: no State taxes, 30 s [hillings] county tax, 
14 s. road tax, 7 s. poor tax: has to prove that he is 

30 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

ill, or crippled or old; 10 to 20 s. free donation for 
the maintenance of the minister, and parish church. 

At Trexler's Tavern^^ 5 miles; bad lodging; isolated 
on the road; ^4 mile from there you pass near Big 
Spring. It is such a rich and steady spring that it 
gives enough water to set a mill going 200 feet away. 

From Ealer's to Trexler's you pass through 3 miles 
of uncultivated land which may be had for £2 to 
3 an acre, but cash; sandy and stony land on which 
only brushwood and a few oak trees and pines, very 
puny and stunted, will grow. At the end of this 
forest, or heath, you arrive in Berks County; there 
the land Is broken by less high hills and gentler slopes; 
the ground is very good, almost all cultivated, and 
there are many farms: it is a succession of fields 
intermixed with little woods, retained by the farmers; 
very interesting to pass through because these 
German farmers take very good care of their farms: 
the houses are of stone or 

Page 20 0} Manuscript 
107-^4 [miles] 

"logs", beams, with the crevices filled with stones 
and mortar. 

At Coots Town [Kutztown] in Berck's [Berks] 
County, 9 miles; stopped with Stauht,^^ a Frenchman 
from Lorraine — at the sign of Washington — good 

All this country has been cultivated and inhabited 

'' Jeremiah Trexler, Macungie Township. — Tavern licenses, 1794-179S, in 
Northampton County Papers (MSS.), vol. VII, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

" Probably John Stoudt (or Staudt). — ^Tavern licenses, Jan. I, 1795, io 
Berks County Records (MSS.), vol. VII, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. See 
also Heads of Families, First U. S. Census, 1790, Penna., p. 37. 

Pennsylvania 3 1 

for a long time. Mr. G. Coots [Kutz]^^ had a farm 
here; he chose next to his place a piece of ground of 
80 acres and in 1780 laid out for a town the land 
which was then in woods, and crossed by the highway. 
Now there is a large stone church for Lutheran and 
Presbyterian Germans who alternately preach there. 

Mr. Coots [Kutz] sells his lots, 50 feet front, 160 
feet depth, up to 100 or 200 Dollars [1], plus a quit- 
rent of 5-^ s [hillings]; it being thus a perpetual 
rent of 5-^ s. (shillings) per lot. In 1780 Coots 
[Kutz] gave the lots for this rent. In 1790 you could 
get them for £15 and they are now £40 for a street 
lot: one of the last ones has just been sold for £60 
in . . . 

There are already about 50 houses, among which 
are 5 taverns, this road being followed by all those 
who emigrate from the East, to go and live in Ken- 
tucky and in the new lands of Pennsylvania. [There 
is] not a farmer in this village, where, by asking from 
door to door, I found out there were: i turner, I 
carpenter, I joiner, 2 hatmakers making poor hats, 

1 saddle maker, i baker, i shoemaker, 2 tailors, I 
lock-smith, i wheelwright, i minister, i school [for 
learning] to read and write German and English, r 
jeweller, who also fixes watches, i weaver, i tobacco- 
factory, 2 stores, I butcher, I [place] where 5 women, 
spin cotton and wool, I ginger-bread vendor, i 
carpenter for houses, i potter, i tan-yard, 5 taverns, 

2 of which are very good; a main route from the 
east to . 

The houses are of (logs) beams and mortar; the 
best ones have boards on the outside and are painted 
like bricks. These few houses, where live the day- 

^The founder of Kuutown was Ge-rge Kutz. — Montgomery, History of 
Berks County (1886), 855. 

32 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

laborers, constitute the whole town, which Is in a 
pretty poor situation; its inhabitants live on the 
produce of the neighboring farms. These farmers 
take their wheat to the German Town mills, 7 miles 
from Philadelphia, where they were still paid lis. 
9 d. a bushel, on the 28th of October. The dealers 
(in the stores) pay 10 s [hillings] to those who want 
to sell theirs here and so avoid the trouble of sending 
it by land (53 miles) to German Town. 

This part of Berks County has the reputation of 
having the best lands 

Page 21 of Manuscript 
116-^2 [miles] 

of the County and is [indeed] excellent ground 
(Township Maxadany) [Maxatawny]. The rest of 
the county is not so good. There are iron mines on 
the mountain and 3 iron-works. 

Here the farms are generally from 150 to 200 acres. 
The price of land here for a farm with house, bam, 
etc., is from £13 to £14 an acre. Then the house 
and barn are good and it is divided: 30 acres in 
woods, 25 good meadows, 95 tilled land, — and in 
proportion if there are 200 or 250 acres. So a 150- 
acre farm near here, the house and barn of which 
would cost £900 to build, has been sold for £2200. 
The land is a little used up, but 2 years rest would 
give it great value. 

Generally an acre of land [produces] 20 bushels of 
wheat, 25 bushels of barley, 25 to 30 bushels of 
buckwheat, l-^ to 2 [.?] tons of hay, both cuttings, 
I-M to 2 tons of clover, 2 cuttings, and then turn 
the cattle in; corn, a little. 

Pennsylvania 3 3 

Maxadany [Maxatawny] Township has remarkable 
springs: there are three which give enough water to 
set in motion big mills 100 to 200 feet away from the 

Plowing is done with horses, but the custom of 
plowing with oxen is gaining more and more. 

They generally sow wheat. The Hessian fly is 
very detrimental to them. For fertilizer manure is 
used. Plaster of Paris is very good for clover the 
first 2 years, but they find out that it uses up the 

A good 300 acre farm is offered for sale near here, 
fair house, very good barn, near the River, 60 acres 
meadow, 230 tillable, 10 woods, — excellent land, for 
£4000 cash. 

Generally the farmers force the ground, because 
the fathers will it to their oldest sons, commanding 
them to pay a certain amount of money to the 
younger brothers or sisters, — and in order to pay off 
these debts, they force the products. 

Here you have to In lygi 

pay for butter, 11 pence a pound; 6 

meat, 5 '' '' " 2-^ 
Salt from Philadelphia [prices omitted] 

Walnut wood, 10 s [hillings] a cord; 7~^ 

Oak '' 7-1^ '' '' " 6 

October, 1794, wheat 10 s. per bushel, barley 6-J/2 
s., buckwheat 2 s./6 to 3 s. For flour you buy your 
wheat and bring it to the mill, where it is ground for 
one tenth [of it]. 

A stranger finds here a good unfurnished room 
with fire-place for 6 to 7 dollars a year, and board at 
Stauht's for 10 s. per week, £25 a year. 

34 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

You get day-laborers for 2 s./6 plus their board, 
and you can hire a good farm hand for £20 a year 
[but these are] beginning to get scarce. 

Page 22 of Manuscript 

The German farmers also manufacture coarse 
woolen material for coats, skirts, etc, and all their 
shirt-linens; they buy only their best clothes, for 
Sunday, and not many of these, as they are thrifty 
to the point of avarice; to keep seems [?] to be their 
great passion; they live on potatoes, and buckwheat 
cakes instead of bread. They deny themselves 
everything costly; but when there is snow, they 
haunt the taverns. They are remarkably obstinate 
and ignorant. 

On every farm they cultivate enough flax and hemp 
and also raise what sheep they need for making 
their linen and cloth. They have a few gardens, at 
least for cabbage and carrots, and they all have bee- 
hives. You always feel like settling in the country 
when you see the excellent ground and the charm of 
the country, and also the advantage of farming, but 
you lose courage when you realize the total lack of 
education of the farmers, and that it is absolutely 
necessary to live to yourself, if you have any edu- 
cation, knowledge and feeling. There ought to be 
5 or 6 families living close together in these districts; 
then they would be very happy, for freedom and 
abundance are obtained in a thousand places of the 
United States, if you are sensible and diligent; but 
for society — nescio vos. 

All these farmers talk politics, and because they 
read the papers, they think they .know a great deal 

Pennsylvania 35 

about the government; they think that government 
officers are too many and overpaid. One of these 
was complaining about the government excise and 
wanted a land-tax, but I pacified him with an argu- 
ment made for those who never generalize ideas — a 
land-tax, I told him, is against liberty, because every 
one must pay it if he has land, while the excise can 
be avoided if you want to — in order to do so, do not 
distill or drink any intoxicating drinks. 

Page 2S of Manuscript 
li6-}4 [miles] 

October 31st left Coots [Kutz] Town; fine warm 
weather, Indian Summer. 

At Nicholas Schaffer's Tavern,^^ 12 miles: Maiden 
Creek Township; fair lodging, Isolated on the road, 
and nicely situated on the Schuylkill River. 

He has 182 acres; 120 are cultivated, — clover, 
wheat, buckwheat; 62 wood-land; good house, bam; 
he is offered £4000 for it, but in this district the 
land is worth £12 to £15 an acre. For the farms 
which generally have 150 acres, and a farmer's house, 
barn, etc., — 90 to 100 acres tilled, 50 to 60 acres 
woods; the yield for an acre generally is: 15 bushels 
wheat, 25 bushels buckwheat, 15 bushels rye, barley, 
one to i-}4 tons of clover, when in good order; 
(fallow) it rests every 3 years, and every 3 years the 
ground is enriched with plaster of Paris, for if you 

36 This was probably the old Cross Keys Inn, still standing five miles north 
of Reading on the banks of the Schuylkill River. "Nicolas Scheffer, inn- 
keeper," of Maiden Creek township (which extended west to the Schuylkill in 
1794) mentioned in Berks County Deed Book, vol. XI, p. 66. See also tavern 
licenses of Jan. I, 1795, in Berks County Records (MSS.), vol. VII, State Library, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

36 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

put it on more often than every 3 years It ruins the 
ground. At harvest-time you find workmen for 3 s. 
and at other times for 2/6 a day, with board, but you 
have to pay them with wheat, calculated as being 
worth a i dollar a bushel, 7/6, and so it is more 
expensive than 3 s. when the wheat is worth more 
than that. 

October 1794, here the price of wheat is 10 S./9 a 
bushel, buckwheat 3 s. a bushel, barley 7 s. a bushel, 
hay £5 a ton, walnut wood 3 dollars a cord, oak 
wood 2-^2 dollars a cord, butter 14 to 15 pence a 

They send to market in Reading, 5 miles from 
here, where now [sentence not completed in manu- 

The house and barn are made with beams, and 
the crevices are filled with stones and mortar. The 
rich and not too economical farmers board their 
houses on the outside, and have them neatly painted 
like bricks, which gives a pleasant appearance. 
Schaffer, a farmer with 182 acres, pays 

£ United States, 

no state tax, 
£4.15 County Tax 

—.10 Poor Tax 

—.15 Road Tax 

£ 6 or ^7- 


Page 24 0} Manuscript 
i2^-}4 [miles] 

. October 31st arrived at Reading, 5 miles; pretty 

'^ The %7l^ is clearly written in the manuscript but no doubt represents a 
lapse on Cazenove's part, as £ 6 would amount to sixteen dollars. 

Pennsylvania 37 

good lodging with Mr. Woods,^^ formerly Withman, 
at the sign of Washington. 

On one side, the surrounding country is wild and 
little cultivated, but the other side is prettier. The 
city is situated on a hill, quite high, yet surrounded 
by higher mountains. At the foot of the hill, the 
Schuylkill River winds. The city consists of several 
large streets. In the center of the 2 main ones is 
the Court-House. There may be about 450 or 500 
houses (and 3000 inhabitants, 15 Germans for one of 
other nations) — among which houses about 50 are 
newly built, of bricks, and neatly decorated like the 
Philadelphia houses, with a strip of white marble. 

On both sides of the Court-House are 2 markets, 
very clean, but their situation in the heart of the city, 
and in the middle of the main streets, is more con- 
venient than beautiful. The "streets are very wide, 
but are not yet paved, though they have sidewalks, 
and gutters for the flowing of water. 

The ground intended for the city is one mile long 
by 34 of a mile wide. 

The streets are laid out^^ like Philadelphia's: the 2 
streets in the centre, which cross, are lined on both 
sides with houses, but the side streets have only a 
few. The first house was built here in 175 1, and 
for 43 years the city has made rapid progress. The 
only manufacture is that of hats, which are made 
chiefly of wool, and sell for i dollar; the export of 
them is 40 thousand a year. In one of the back 

^* Probably Michael Wood, who succeeded, about this time, to the hotel 
business of the Witman family. — Montgomery, Hist, of Berks Co. (1886), 659- 
660. See also Berks County Records (MSS.), Vol. VII, State Library, Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

'' At this point in his Journal Cazenove made a rough diagram of the 
principal streets of Reading. 

38 Cazenove Journal: 1794. 

streets a carpenter makes boats which he then takes 
to the river. There was a finished boat in the middle 
of the street, 60 feet long by 8 feet wide, costing £45. 
They are very flat and without keel; thus they carry 
to Philadelphia a load of 5 tons, when the Schuykill 
is low, and 12 when it is high; a new and beautiful 
R[oman] Catholic Church (a fine new German 
Lutheran Church and a German Presbyterian one.) 

Page 2$ 0} Manuscript 
133-K m. 

There were in the county jail 4 prisoners, all born 
in Pennsylvania: a criminal for theft and forgery; a 
man and his wife for thefts; and an intriguer who 
had cheated the county farmers, making them believe 
that he knew how to make 2 dollars with only one 
dollar. He began by giving them back 8 shiny ones 
for 4 old ones they had given him, then 20 for 10. 
Finally, they brought him, one man 100, another 
300 dollars, to be doubled, and he disappeared when 
he had a good-sized sum. 

[The new Roman Catholic Church (see close of 
preceding page)] was built here in 1792. There are 
only about 50 Roman Catholic families here, but 
there are some in the country who come here from 
50 miles around — but the priest lives 20 miles away 
and comes only once a month for the service. There 
is a German church — one of Quakers. 

[There being] many merchants, having stores, the 
trade inland and the transit business is very im- 
portant. The farm produce is shipped from here to 
Philadelphia, on these flat boats which carry from 

Pennsylvania 39 

5 to 12 tons, according to the seasons, when the 
river is high or low. The county-jail and the seat of 
the court [are here]. About foodstuffs, price of land, 
city-lots, etc., consult a printed blank^° filled in for 
Reading by Mr. Read,^^ a highly regarded lawyer 
here, who showed me much politeness, as well as a 
Mr. Morris.^" There are here about 20 rich families, 
[worth] from 10 or 15 thousand to £100,000. Mr. 
Heyster^^ is said to be worth £100 thousand. 

A German newspaper is printed here every Wednes- 
day, for I dollar a year. The Penns, proprietors, 
founded this city and kept for themselves a perpetual 
rent of 6 s. for each city lot. Twice a week, the 
stage-coach goes to Philadelphia, fare 2-^4 dollars, 
and to Harrisburg, fare 2-}4 dollars. 

Mifflin's farm, now belonging to Nicholson,^ 3 
miles from Reading; pretty bad road, like all the 
others. Its situation is high, although the hills or 
mountains around are higher, and covered with 
woods, but from the house you see above the fields 
the city of Reading and the whole country. The 
stone-house is very good and well built. On the 
ground-floor, there is a large kitchen, with a rich 
and never-failing spring of excellent water; next a 

" No trace of Cazenove's printed blanks has been found, in America or 

*^ Undoubtedly Collinson Read, an eminent attorney of Reading at that 
time. — Montgomery, Hist, of Berks Co. (1886), 558. ^'Ir. Read is also men- 
tioned prominently by La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels through the U. S. 
(2 vols. London, 1799), I, 26, 29. 

^ Perhaps Benjamin Morris, brother of Cadwalader Morris. — Montgomery, 
Hist, of Berks County (1886), p. 549. 

*^ The reference is probably to Joseph Hiester, later Governor of Penna. 

" Governor Thomas Mifflin sold the farm to John Nicholson, of Phila. 
The latter was Controller, State of Penna., 1782-1794, and a great speculator in 
lands. Brief biographical sketch in H. Simpson, Lives of Eminent Philadelphians 
(1859), 743-744. — Also Deed Book, XIV, 342, Berks Co. Records, Reading, Pa. 

40 Cazenove Journal: 1^94 

dining-room with a small pantry, further on, the 
hall, which is a room with a fire-place, and a small 
room with a fire-place; a good stairway leads to the 
second floor where there are 7 bed-rooms, and many 
ward-robes and closets, — very large attic divided in 
2, and a large and excellent cellar. The piazza is in 
bad order, no carpeting, but very clean — an ice- 
house — very large barn, and a stable for about 12 
horses and 48 cows — a cider-press, an orchard of old 
trees, and a second one of young pear-trees. There 
is a saw-mill, and water for another mill, for flour, 
a little but bad house for a workman; a spring that 
can bring water all over the house and to the stables. 
The garden, not well taken care of, but might be 
nicely arranged. 

The nature of this land is "Lime land," calcareous 
land. There are 900 acres adjacent, and 500 acres 
a mile away from the large farm. 

Page 26 of Manuscript 
^33-H [miles] 

The 900 acres consist of: 

70 in natural meadows, well watered. 

30 that may be made into natural meadows. 

400 cleared woods, 280 of which are cultivated. 

400 woods, the greater part of which can be made 

into artificial meadows. 
900 [acres] 

The 500 of the so-called "Island farm" consist of: 

90 meadow and field, on an island formed by the 

Schuykill River. 
410 in woods, good for timber, and the greater part 
of which can be made tillable and Into pasture. 

Pennsylvania 41 

Mr. Nicholson has the large farm worked by a 
Quaker farmer*^ to whom he gives £90 and the 
food supplied by the farm: aside from that, the 
farmer stands to him merely in the relation of a 
clerk to his employer. 

The years 1793 and 1794 have been rather bad on 
account of the weather, etc., but in 1791 and 1792, 
the farm, not much worked, produced: 

700 bushels of wheat 
200 " " barley 
300 " " buckwheat 
150 " " corn 
150 tons of hay and clover 

The farmer told me you could count on a pro- 
duction of 

10 to 15 bushels of wheat per acre 
20 to 25 corn 

25 to 30 " " buckwheat per acre 
10 to 15 " " barley " " 

I to i^ tons hay and clover per acre 

He had tried plaster of Paris; it was a success and 
gave a large cutting of clover. 

On the 500 acres of Island farm, there is a bad 
farm-house; this land is rented to a farmer under 
condition of giving 6 bushels of the yield of each 
acre; the purchase of this land would be, I think, 
beneficial for those who could direct the work. In 
179 1, Governor Mifflin offered to sell me this large 

** La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt speaks of securing information on agricul- 
ture from a Mr. Evans, near Reading: "He superintends and manages the farm 
of Angelico for Mr. Nicholson in Philadelphia, who bought it three years ago 
from Governor MifBin." La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels Through the 
United States (2 vols., London, 1799), I, 30. 

42 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

farm, and the 500 acres of the Island, for £7000. 
He sold it since for £9000 to Mr. Nicholson, who 
now asks £12000 for it. There are several farms 
around, but no society. The land is level, and its 
proximity to the River and the city of Reading, 
where there is a stage-coach twice a 

Page 2y of Manuscript 
133-/^ [miles] 

week for Philadelphia, 56 miles from Reading, where 
there is a market, doctor, and some social life, is a 
great advantage. 

November 2nd left Reading at 9 o'clock; took two 
more horses and a postilion for 2 D [ollars] a day for 
as long as I shall keep them, and counting i-}4 days 
for the return either from Lancaster or Philadelphia. 

In France everywhere I saw the farmers had 4 
times as much furniture as the farmers in America 
generally have; above all there is no comparison 
between the keeping of the inside and outside of the 
farms, under the same conditions. 

In France you see the farmers having first, several 
large wardrobes, filled with clothes and linen, more or 
less, silver spoons, knives and forks, large silver 
drinking-cups for each member of the family, father, 
mother, older children; much linen underwear and 
table-Hnen, good wines and brandy in the cellar; each 
farm has a well kept garden with plenty of vegetables, 
cabbage, lettuce, turnips. 

In Pennsylvania^ the rich German farmers and 
others [unfinished]. 

At Deep Spring^^ [stopped] at 5 miles. Fair 

** The present Sinking Spring. An old tavern, probably the one referred to 
by Cazenove, is still standing on the property. 

Pennsylvania 43 

tavern, on the road. There you see a very rich 
spring, forming a small reservoir, whose water dis- 
appears under the ground and forms a large brook 
200 feet away. 

At 5 [miles]. On the road, a tavern where 

one could easily spend the night, it being clean; J<4 
mile away, you see the Big, or Allen Spring.'*' It is 
a little spring always spouting up in several places 
and forming a little pond 18 feet deep, peculiarly full 
of excellent trout; the spring has enough water to set 
a mill in motion. The farm, on which It is, belongs 
to Squire Ekhard,^^ a justice of the peace, who bought 
it in 1788 for £2100, and spent £1000 on it. He 
has just sold It for £6000, payable In a certain time, 
with 6% interest until payment. There are 320 
acres, 140 of which is a forest of good timber, and 180 
Is tilled and pasture. He does not think the pur- 
chaser can produce the £360 net, necessary to pay 
him the Interest. Every morning and evening, a 
dense fog rises from the pond where the spring is and 
makes this place full of fever. 

Page 28 of Manuscript 
1 43 >^ [miles] 

The country is rather pretty along this road; the 
land Is very much intersected with high hills and 
mountains, but their declivity allows culture, almost 
to the top, which Is generally covered with forests 
very useful to the farmers. The valleys are rich 
meadows and the rest of the land Is in grains and_ 
clover. The farmers' houses are well built, of stone; 

" Big Spring, recently renamed Crystal Lake, lies about ij^ miles west of 
VVemersville and about J^ mile north of the main Reading-Harrisburg pike. 
" Probably John Eckert, Esquire. — Berks County Deed Book, No. 13, p. 219. 

44 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

good, large barns, good teams of large and strong 
horses, . . . and if the farmers liked money less, they 
would surround themselves with more conveniences 
and live in plenty. 

([Top and side endorsements:] They have all 
become rich, through the high price of grains since 
the French Revolution. They accumiilate cash and 
keep it idle, by distrust — or they buy land, next to 
their own, which they do not cultivate and their sav- 
ings remain idle. However, it is only fair to say that 
German farmers give farms to their sons as soon as 
they are of age, for their marriage, and even if they 
have 10 sons, they all become farmers, — ^while Irish 
farmers, if they make a fortune, bring up their 
children for the cities.) 

In this district an acre of land is worth from £15 to 
£20, but then they are 200 or 300 acre farms, partly 
cultivated and with house and barn. The road, as 
everywhere, is very bad, clayey soil and rocks, very 
deep ruts; in short, break-neck, impassable if it 
rained at all. 

Womelsdorf, at Stauch's,^^ 4 miles, pretty good 
lodging. It is a town where there are a German 
Lutheran church, about 50 houses, among which 
some of stone and 3 or 4 new ones of bricks, the rest 
are of logs and mortar. The neighborhood is re- 
markably well cultivated, therefore pleasant. The 
road from here to Meyer Town is very bad, clay or 
pebbles or rocks, until 

^^ Conrad Stauch. — Montgomery, History of Berks County (1886), 875; see 
also tavern licenses, Jan. i, 1795, in Berks County Records (MSS.), vol. VII, 
State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. Mr. John A. Matthews, an aged resident of 
Womelsdorf, feels sure (1921) that Conrad Stauch kept the old Center House, 
now closed. 

Pennsylvania 45 

Meyer's Town [Myerstown] 7 miles, stopped with 
Khener/'' bad lodging, — and when you have time, 
it is better to stay with Stauch, at Womelsdorf. It 
is a little group of about 30 houses and cottages, on 
both sides of the highway. 

On the road, there is a German Lutheran church. 
The sermon ended just as I passed. It seemed to me 
I saw people coming out of church in Westphalia, so 
much have all these farmers kept their ancestors' 
costume, only most young farmers have given up the 
straw-hat for the cap [t] of black silk, which Metho- 
thodists wear — but for the men, the green coats, 
light blue ones, and large, pulled-down hats, boots 
extending above the knees, etc., as in Germany — 
expecially their bearing and appearance. 

I also met a family from Jersey that was mov- 
ing, — the old father and the mother with 8 children, 
in 2 covered carts, one drawn by 4, the other by 2 
horses, all their clothes and some pieces of furniture. 
He had sold his farm in Essex County, in Jersey, 

Page 2g of Manuscript 
154-K [miles] 

and was going to Red Stone, Pennsylvania, where he 
hoped to find, according to information, some g6od 
land to buy. There was some to be had, he said^ 
from 5 s. up to 5 dollars an acre, according to quality 
and situation. He had heard that around Red 
Stone winters were less severe and trees easier to fell 
(smaller) than in the country beyond the Mohawk, 
in New York. He had with him 5 sons, from 22 to 
12 years old, and 3 daughters, from 18 to 8. The 

" Godfrey Keener (or K.un&r).— Dauphin County Tavern Licenses, 1786-1838 
(unbound MSS.), State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. See list for years 1795-1799. 

46 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

whole family walked briskly along by the wagons. 
At Meyer's Town found Mr. Roberdeau, Mr. 
Weston's^^ director and assistant in the building of 
the great canal. ^^ 

November 3rd, left Meyer's Town [Myerstown], 
and arrived at Lebanon, Dauphin County, 7 miles; 
stopped with Greenwald,^^ fair lodging. Followed 
the road from Meyer's Town to Lebanon, skirting 
the canal, finished for these 7 miles. The part of 
the canal (to open navigation between the Susque- 
hanna and the Schuylkill Rivers, from Harrisburg to 
Reading) already built, shows the skill of the civil 
engineer, Weston, from England. The 5 adjoining 
locks to have the boats go down and up a 30 foot 
fall; the arched bridges, plain and well proportioned, 
everything is done well. For the details of this great 
and useful undertaking, see the separate note. 

The German farmers' stinginess and lack of 
conscience in money matters, were particularly shown 
when they had to give land for the canal-way, at the 
rate of 100 feet width for the strip of land. The 
jurymen estimated an acre from £120 to £300; 
2 acres have even been estimated £1100, although 
the whole farm was bought 3 years ago for £1000. 

" Isaac Roberdeau, later Chief of U. S. Bureau of Topographical Engineers. 
^Jppleton's Cyclopaedia of Amencan Biog., V, 271; see also R. Buchanan, 
Roberdeau Family (Wash., 1876), p. 109, containing also reference to William 
Weston, of Gainsborough-on-Trent, England, the engineer referred to above. 

^^ This canal was being built by the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Navigation 
Co., but later came under the control of the Union Canal Co. After many 
delays traffic was opened between Middletown, on the Susquehanna, and Read- 
ing, on the Schuylkill, in 1827. — H. M. Jenkins, Pennsylvania, II, 270-271. 
See also pamphlet The Union Canal Co. of Penna. Phila. 1853, — copy in Hist. 
Soc. of Pa. library-; also Canal Navigation in Pa. Phila. 1795, — copy in Ridgway 
Branch, Library Co. of Phila. 

" Probably Philip Greenawalt. — Dauphin County Tavern Licenses, 1786- 
X838 (Unbound MSS.), State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Pennsylvania >47 

However, this jury is chosen from 48 named by the 
prothonotary; each side rejects 12, and of the 
remaining 24, the twelve first comers are sworn and 
decide. The ignorance of these farmers is such that 
they were strongly opposed to the building of a canal 
in their district, that could convey their boats and 
produce as far as Philadelphia. Those from Boston 
offered their land free 

Page 50 of Manuscript 
161-^2 mi. 

in order to have the canal that is going to be extended 
in Massachusetts, pass there. 

Lebanon is a little town, quite pleasant; the 
situation of the land is very high yet it forms a plain 
several miles wide, and thoroughly cultivated. [Top 
endorsement:] It is the summit-level of the great 
canal. From this plain the water goes on one side 
by the Tulpehocken Creek into the Schuylkill, and 
on the other by the Quittapahilla and Swatara 
Creeks into the Susquehanna. 

In the summer, this place must be (for the location) 
as agreeable as it is healthful. A stage-coach 2 
times a week for Philadelphia — 4 dollars; no printing- 
plant. The farms are from 150 to 250 acres and are 
worth on the average, with house, barns and 150 
acres tilled and meadows, £15 to 20 an acre, gener- 
ally yielding: 15 to 20 bushels wheat per acre, 25 
bushels corn, 30 to 40 bushels buckwheat, i ton hay. 

The town of Lebanon was begun in 1758 by Mr. 
Stuyts,^ who gave the lots for a 4 s. (shilling) quit- 

" George Stites (also spelled Steitz, Steitze, Stits). 

48 Cazenove Journal: 1794. 

rent; his property was bought by 8 of the Inhabitants, 
5 of whom remain and collect the 4 s. (shillings) 
quit-rent per lot or house, and for the out-lots near 
the town, at the rate of 5 s. per acre, and one dollar 
per acre for meadows. There are in Lebanon 170 
houses and two cross streets, inhabited by mechanics, 
— and 2 stores. Lots in the center are worth from 
2 to 300 £, those further away £150, and are 66 
feet front by 190 feet deep. All the inhabitants 
are Germans; there are 2 churches, a Lutheran one? 
and a German Presbyterian one; 400 feet from the 
town, an isolated church for the Moravians of the 
town and neighborhood. 

In Lebanon, flour costs , butcher's meat 5 

pence a pound, fresh pork 6 pence, butter i s [hilling]; 
walnut wood 2 dollars a cord, oak wood 10 s [hillings] 
a cord. 

A workman earns 3 s. per day, and ^ dollar in 

For fertilizer, lime, which is plentiful here; plow 
with two horses. 

[Rotation] New ground here: 

1st year, wheat 


" wheat again 


" oats 


" fallow, rest 


" wheat 


" fallow, etc. 

Lands cultivated a longer time : 

1st year, wheat 

2 " barley 

3 " corn, or oats 

Pennsylvania 49 

4 year, fallow, or buckwheat 

5 "if buckwheat the 4th year, then fallow. 

The cattle stay in the stables from December to 

Board per week in private house, 2 dollars. 

Now prices are: wheat 9 shillings a bushel, corn 
5 s., barley 7-^ s., oats 2/6 (the army 3/6);" hay 
£4.10 per ton now, it being in the barn; £3.15 to 
4, taken directly from the fields. 

([Side endorsement:] The carting of a ton of hay 
from here to Philadelphia is from £5 to £6, if the 
road is bad; 2 s./6 for a bushel of grain.) 

Page 31 of Manuscript 
161-}^ miles 

November 4th left Lebanon; at Homelstown 
[Hummelstown], 16 miles, stopped at Room's,^^ very 
neat [lodging]. 

It is a village on the highway. There are about 
50 little houses, of logs and mortar, yet with little 
English windows; inhabited by workmen, who work 
for the farmers around; a large retail store and 
4 tavern-keepers. However, the lots, or building 
ground, 60 feet front by 200 deep, are all bought by 
the inhabitants and are worth from 20 to 40 pounds 
or 50 to 100 dollars; a German Presbyterian church. 

One should go and see the Grotto, the Swatara 
Cave, about a mile from Homelstown. It is curious 
enough; nothing indicates it on the outside; you 
arrive there by crossing plowed, but poor fields, on 

^ Annv contingents called out on account of the Whiskey Insurrection 
and camped in the vicinity, paid higher than the ordinary price. 

** Probably Michael Rahm. — Dauphin County Tavern Licenses, 1786 -1838 
(unbound MSS.), State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

50 Cazenove Journal: 1794. 

the bank of the River; a few heaps of rocks make the 
descent to the shore easy, and the entrance of the 
cave is facing the river. This cave is pretty deep 
and you go around it through tunnels whose vault is 
made of rocks, limestone, and covered with stalactites 
of different shapes and sizes, which make the inside 
look like the ornamentations of Gothic architecture. 
It would be necessary to be a learned naturalist to 
describe this cave; there is a spring at the bottom 
and the cavity of the cave seems to me to be formed 
by the water of the spring which carried away 
everything that was not firm. It is the cave des- 
cribed by Morse, Geography, Boston edition. Volume 
I, page 496. I cut off some stalactite stones which 
I am keeping. 

On my way I met near Millers Town^^ a funeral 
procession, more than 150 farmers and farmers' 
wives on horse-back, some in carriages, were pre- 
ceding and following a man on horse-back who was 
carrying before him a small coffin in which was the 
dead child. This large company, after the burial, 
was to %o and spend the rest of the day at the mor- 
tuary house and be refreshed and feasted. The 
whole neighborhood took part in the ceremony and 
the cavalcade was as numerous as curious, because 
of all those German faces, male and female, trooping 
along by the corpse. 

From Lebanon to Homelston [Hummelstown] the 
road is fair and the land everywhere is good and 
thoroughly cultivated; much wheat, few meadows. 
The farms all . . . [?] are owned by Germans, who 

"The present Annville, about six miles west of Lebanon, long known as 
Millerstown from its founder, Abraham Miller. — Egle, Hist, of Dauphin and 
Lebanon Counties, Part II, p. 227. 

Pennsylvania 5 1 

do not sell again, but when they are sold, they are 
worth from £15 to £20 an acre. 

Page J2 of Manuscript 
i6i-y^ m. 

November 5th, left Homels Town [Hummelstown] 
and arrived through a more broken and wild country, 
but however well cultivated, at 

Harrisburg, on the Susquehanna, 9 miks; stopped 
with Crapp,^^ good lodging. 

This city is one of America's little phenomena. In 
the matter of the rapidity of its rise. In 1785 there 
was on this location only the single house and farm 
of Mr. Harris. The favorable situation of the place 
gave him the Idea of founding a city there; he laid 
out the streets on a wise plan, like the city of Phila- 
delphia, but keeping a large square in the center, on 

a triangular plot of acres, whose greater side Is 

on the edge of the beautiful Susquehanna River.^^ 
He divided the city Into lots $2-^4 feet front by 210 
feet deep. The side facing the river is a magnificent 
street, on account of the height of the bank and the 
beauty of the river there, a mile wide, and adorned 
with 3 small Islands, planted with trees. There are 
about a thousand lots, and already 300 houses neatly 
built in brick or "logs and mortar," 2 stories high, 
English windows; the streets are wide, not yet paved. 
With the exception of 3 or 4 independent people, 
and lawyers, all the Inhabitants are either mechanics, 
or they manufacture hats and tobacco; 32 taverns 

"Probably Wm. Crabb. — Dauphin County Tavern Licenses, 1786 -1838 
(unbound MSS.), State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. — See also Heads of Families, 
First U. S. Census, 1790, Penna., p. 86. 

" At this point Cazenove made a rough diagram of the principal streets of 

52 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

and eighteen merchants keeping In their stores 
European merchandise, and buying farmers' produce. 
Mr. Harris sold lots in the nice streets from £60 
to £80 and in the less conspicuous parts for £20 to 
£30. All the city lots are now the property of the 
2nd or 3rd buyer, and one can no longer buy unim- 
proved lots under £200 to £300, in good location, 
and from 40 to 60 in remote streets. There are few 
cities which in proportion have such a large number 
of merchants keeping retail stores. Commerce is 
very important in this city, 

P<^g^ 33 of Manuscript 

since it is from here that the Susquehanna River is 
readily navigable towards Its source, and crosses, in 
its 2 branches, an important piece of country. The 
lands watered by the Susquehanna are so excellent, 
that settlements are made hourly, and the farmers 
are generally supplied from here; also from here 
comes a large part of the products, that go down 
the river in boats. Last year about 200,000 bushels 
of wheat were counted, chiefly used by 2 or 3 very 
rich millers, who have their mills In this vicinity and 
by a Mr. George Fry who has a splendid mill in 
Middle Town, 9 miles below, on the Susquehanna 

There is here a printing-plant, where an English 
newspaper Is printed; It is published every Monday 
and costs 2 dollars a year for subscription; a school, 
where I saw about 60 children learning from only one 
teacher, reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, etc.; 
each scholar paid him 10 s. (shillings) per term. A 
German church, where Lutherans and German 

Pennsylvania 53 

Presbyterians have alternate services; they are going 
to build an English church. 

This is the capital of Dauphin County, so it is the 
seat of the court of law; they are building a large 
Court House of bricks which will be very large and 
well built. 

The county-jail had one prisoner, a thief, con- 
demned to 2 years imprisonment, and 3 noisy negroes. 
The county allows the jailer, for the keeping of pris- 
oners, 4 (four) pence a day, for which sum he must 
give them fire, one pound of bread, and water. I had 
letters of introduction for General Annha,®° who 
married one of Mr. Harris's daughters, and he re- 
ceived me very obligingly. He knows a great deal 
about Harrisburg. 

A hollow, or swamp, which is near the city, where 
the exhalations from the bed of the river, when the 
water is low, or some other cause, brings every fall 
intermittent fevers which inconvenience the inhab- 
itants very much. Without this occurrence, there 
would already be many more houses. There are 3 
brick-factories near the city, where very good bricks 
are made at dollars a thousand. 

[An asterisk in the manuscript refers to the new 
Court House, mentioned two paragraphs above.] 
They are making the building so large with the idea 
that the Pennsylvania legislature will hold its 
meetings here. Mr. Harris, in order to obtain from 
the government incorporation for his city, gave the 
state of Pennsylvania four acres, still in meadows, in 
a high and favorable location in the city. He also 

^^ John A. Hanna; he served in the Revolution, and was a Brigadier-General 
of militia at the time of the Whiske/ Insurrection. Brief biographical sketch 
in Egle, Hist, of Dauphin and Lebanon Counties (Phila., 1883), 501. 

54 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

gave the ferry, which yields £200 a year; also he 
agreed to sell 200 lots 

Page 340/ Manuscript 
170-J/2 miles 

at the prices fixed by the commissioners, named by 
the legislature, who fixed them since at from £10 to 
£60, according to location. But he sold the rest of 
the land from £26 to £80 a lot. Since the past 
summer, boats of a new pattern have been built to go 
down the Susquehanna. They are a kind of ferry- 
boat, with high sides, triangular in the front and back," 
with which they take from 200 to 300 barrels of 
flour over the Conewago Falls, provided the water 
is not too low. 

Generally, the wheat coming from up the river, 
goes down to Middle Town, where Mr. G. Fry's big 
mills are, and also several other millers who buy what 
arrives; there too, the millers of Lancaster and from 
all over Pennsylvania, have agents, who always have 
money to pay cash. The farmers then come to 
Harrisburg where they find larger, well stocked 
stores, and they buy what they need. 

Carting from Harrisburg to Philadelphia, about 100 
miles, usually costs from 5 to 6 s. (shillings) the hun- 
dred pounds. Because of the passage of the Army, 
the carters were so busy that they ask to-day 8 s. for 
a hundred pounds, but that is only accidental. The 
Harrisburg citizens are very strongly opposed to the 
building of the great canal, because it must end at 
Middle Town, a city already a great rival of this one. 

" At this point Cazenove drew a rough sketch of the boat he was describing. 

Pennsylvania 55 

About the price of provisions, lots, land, etc., see 
one of the printed papers filled in for Harrisburg. 

November 6, left Harrisburg, and crossed the river 
by the pontoon, pretty good and cheap, 6 s. for 5 
horses, the carriage, and 4 persons. After having 
climbed the mountain opposite Harrisburg, the land 
is generally very level, of good quality, and exten- 
sively tilled; on every side, widely extended wheat 
and corn-fields. German farmers of Dauphin and 
Berks counties every day acquire farms from the 
Irish farmers, who settled here first; 7 miles from 
Harrisburg, at Silver Spring 

Page SS of Manuscript 
I stopped with Mr. Pollok,^^ ^y^Q has an estate of 
1300 acres, mill, etc., which he bought in 1786 for 
£5000 and for which he is offered £15000. The 
house is not much but the water beautiful and the 
soil good; 14 miles from Harrisburg is the fine farm 
of General Erwin,^^ for whom I had letters. He has 
just had an excellent house built there; 15-K miles 
from Harrisburg are the barracks of United States 
troops, 5 big and well made buildings. There are 

82 Perhaps James Pollock. See Heads of Families, Penna., U. S. Census, 
1790, p.8i; a James Pollock was appointed Coroner of Cumberland Co. in 1775, — 
Penn-Physick Co. MSS., XV, 85; see also Misc. MSS., Northern, Interior and 
Western Counties, p. 85; above MSS. in Library of Hist. Soc. of Penna., Phila. 
In the county records at Carlisle there are also references to Oliver Pollock and 
John Pollock. The latter kept an inn at Carlisle for many years. The probate 
records show that James Pollock died in Carlisle. The census of 1790 (see 
above), pp. 83, 84, shows two John Pollocks. One of these may have been at 
Silver Spring. No trace of a Pollock at Silver Spring is to be found in the 
records of the Land Office at Harrisburg. 

"General William Irvine. His letters and papers are preserved in the 
library of the Historical Society of Penna., Phila.— See vol. XII, p. 62, for Gov. 
Thos. Mifflin's letter to Irvine, introducing Cazenove. See also Introduction, 
p. vi above. 

S6 Cazenove Journal: i'/Q4 

150 militiamen stationed here, to keep the rioters in 

At Carlisle, county seat of Cumberland County, 
17 miles from Harrisburg; stopped with Forest,^"* — 
good lodging. This town was begun by the Penns, 
proprietors, in 1759. The streets are wide and well 
laid out, not paved nor lighted yet; the location of 
this town is on a widely extended and very high 
plain, since it is the highest part of all the long valley 
between the double row of mountains, extending 
from Jersey to Virginia, so that only in the North 
and South do the high Blue mountains, surrounding 
this site, rise above it. There are at present from 
330 to 350 houses about a hundred of which are 
neatly built, and 2400 inhabitants here. The in- 
habitants are generally Irish, and a few Germans, 
who gradually are coming to live here; but the first 
inhabitants were all Irish. 

Messrs. Penn divided the land in the city into lots, 
60 feet front by 240 feet deep, subjected to a 7 s. 
(shillings) quit-rent per lot; they also disposed of the 
out-lots, from 5 to 8 or 10 acres, subjected to a 3 s. 
quit-rent an acre. They united two large commons 
for the use of the inhabitants, which makes things 
easier for the poor. Since the war, the quit-rents 
have not been collected, because of some difference 
among the Penn heirs, but the inhabitants are ready 
to make up these quit-rents, in order to have clear 
title deeds for the land which they have successively 
sold to one another. 

®* Thomas Foster. See John R. Miller, Old Taverns (pamphlet reprint of 
address of 1907 before Hamilton Library Assoc), ?• 21. See also Tavern 
Licenses, 1780-1837, in Cumberland County Manuscripts, vol. VI, State Library, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Pennsylvania 57 

Just now a lot in the main street and on the square 
sells for £150, and £300 for the lots at the four 
corners of the square; the other lots in the city sell 
for £10 to 60 according to location, but the buyer 
always has to settle with Messrs. Penn for the deeds. 

Page $6 of Manuscript 
Carlisle 187-^ [miles] 

This defect in the deeds is the reason why the out-lots 
sell for only £10 an acre. ([Bottom endorsement:] 
They count here a few families living comfortably — 
lawyers and some who made a fortune in land- 
speculation; among the latter is Mr. Blaine,^^ esti- 
mated to be worth £60,000.) The court of law 
has its seat here for the County, whose jail is here. 
There were 5 robbers, all Irish, in a little room, with 
chains on their feet, for crime of theft, first offense, 
although they were sentenced to 7 years in prison. 
They will be able to escape, as they escape from all 
these county jails, whose windows look out into the 
street; they can easily saw the bars. 

There is an English Presbyterian church, a little 
Anglican one, and a little German one. There Is a 
college®^ here, whose building is very shabby, and 
small for the 70 students. The price for tuition Is 
£5 per year. The students find good boarding- 
houses for £35 a year; 5 teachers and professors to 
teach English, Latin, Greek, mathematics, history, 
and philosophy. There is in the town another school, 
a preparatory one; the students are taught reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. There is a printing-plant: 

^ Probably Ephraim Blaine. — Centennial Memorial of the Presbytery of 
Carlisle (1889), II, 319, 368. 

^ Dickinson College, founded in 1783. 

58 Cazenove Journal: 1794. 

an English newspaper, every Wednesday, for 2 
dollars a year. 

In this, Cumberland County, farms are larger, 
from 200 to 400 acres, half of it cleared, the other in 
woods, with house, barn, etc. ([Side endorsement:] 
The farmers keep too much woods, they are always 
afraid of not having enough, either for their fire, 
field-fences, or buildings.) These farms are generally 
bought for £10 an acre; farms unusually good in 
land, water, buildings, etc., sell for as much as £15 
and even £20 an acre. There are some whose soil 
is very poor, called "Slitland""; on which the woods 
are stunted [?], that can be bought for £5 an acre. 

Generally, the farmers put no fertilizer on their 
land, except the small quantity of the farm-manure: 
they claim that lime-fertilizer impairs their land. 

Generally a good farmer of this district harvests: 

15 to 20 bushels of wheat on each acre, sown with 

one bushel. 
20 to 30 bushels of corn on each acre, 
30 to so " of oats " " " 
I to i-yi ton of clover or hay. 

They are beginning to sow much clover. They 
have not a consistent nor very well thought-out 
system for their crop rotation, and follow too much 
their humor; but those who are reputed good farmers 
in this district, use, when the land 

" Elsewhere in the Journal spelled "Sklit" or "Sklite." On a loose insert 
in the original journal Cazenove has written "Black slate, Gray slate" and then 
has crossed out the word slate in both cases and written "sklite." It was 
probably a local Pennsylvania German word for slate or shale soils that Cazenove 
picked up and tried to spell phonetically. — See also pp. 67, 79 below, where it is 
used perhaps to designate soils that are merely stony, although there are real 
shale soils in Adams County and in northern Chester County. — See U. S. 
Bureau of Soils, field Operations, 12th Report (1910) and 14th Report (1912). 

Pennsylvania 59 

Page 57 of Manuscript 

Cumberland County — Carlisle 

is in good condition: 

1st year — plow 3 times and sow wheat 

2nd " — oats or corn 

3rd ] year 

4th j " — clover and rest. 

Others use: 

1st year — wheat 






— ^barley 

— corn 

— oats 

— rest 

— fallow and wheat. 

To work one [farm] of 400 acres, 200 of which are 
cleared, 4 men are needed, and 10 or 12 are hired for 
the 2 or 3 weeks [?] of harvest; 3 men are kept very 
busy keeping in order a 150 acre farm, in cultivation 
and pasture. 

Mr. Moore,^^ a farmer 4 miles from Carlisle, is 
reputed the richest farmer in the district; they 
estimate he is worth from £30,000 to £40,000. 
He is the son of Irish parents and very thrifty. 

They always take, on new lands, a piece of ground 
which they sow the first year: ^ turnips; ^ sweet 
potatoes; 2nd [year] flax. 

They plow with 2 horses; the use of oxen for farm 
work is little known here. 

A day's work brings }4 dollar. 

^* Probably John Moore, of West Pennsboro Township. — Cumberland 
County Record Book (Carlisle, Pa.), Vol. I, K, p. 14. 

6o Cazenove Journal: 1794 

In Carlisle they pay now for 

butcher's meat 5 pence a pound 
salt i-M dollars a bushel 

butter I S./3 or 15 pence a pound 

walnut- wood $1-/4 to % a cord 

oak ^i-Mto>^" " 

the army 2^^^ 

There are 2 brick-factories — 1000 bricks for 25 s., 
$3-}^; a bushel of lime i s. 

The price of wheat is at present here I dollar, 

7 S./6 bushel 
The price of com is at present here 5 s. bushel 
The price of oats is at present here 2 s./6 bushel 
The price of hay is at present here 7 dollars a ton 
The price of buckwheat is at present here J/2 dollar 

a bushel 
Baltimore is the market-place where flour made in 
this county is sent; sometimes to Philadelphia. The 
carting of a barrel of flour from here to Baltimore 
brings i dollar, and to Philadelphia 10 s. a barrel. 
To transport merchandise from Philadelphia here 
costs from i to i-M dollars a quintal. 

I saw here two elks, male and female, such as are 
numerous in the woods up the Susquehanna. The 
male is a splendid animal, a kind of a deer, but 
stronger and taller, and the structure and arrange- 
ment of his horns are much more dangerous. ^° 

Page ^8 of Manuscript 
Carlisle is in the center of the extent of the valley 
which is between the two high ranges of Blue Moun- 

*' Army contingents, called out on account of the Whiskey Insurrection 
and camped in the vicinity, paid more than the ordinary price. 

^^ After this sentence Cazenove drew a rough sketch of the horns of the elk. 

Pennsylvania 6i 

tains, called here North and South Mountains. The 
valley is 12 miles wide and the high mountains, 6 
miles away, on either side, are so high that you can- 
not pass through. However, last summer and this 
summer, land-surv'eyors surveyed all the land on 
these mountains, apparently to deceive those to whom 
they will sell land in Cumberland County. And 
since they surveyed these high, inaccessible lands, 
they will probably have surveyed also Mifflin and 
Bedford Counties, which are known to be very 
mountainous. N.B. Mr. M. Hendresson,'^ a deputy 
surveyor of this district, told me he had surveyed the 
lands of the 2 mountain ranges. North and South, 
of Cumberland County, for Mr. Nicholson^^ and for a 
Mr. Stolker, from Maryland, who have established 
iron-works on these mountains. 

November 7th, left Carlisle, by a pretty bad road 
in the plains. Generally on both sides, large culti- 
vated fields. 

At Mount Rock, 7 miles, — bad lodging, lonely 
tavern on the road. There is a mile and a little more 
of very stony road up to Rocky Hill. There you 
leave the plain and the road follows a range of very 
high hills. The good lands and large farms are not 
seen from the road. The farms near the road have 
been cleared for only 4 or 5 years; the ground is 
pretty good, but water is so scarce that these lands 
do not sell above £4 or £5. The new farmers all 
live in wretched log [t] houses without windows, and 
with chimneys of sticks and clay, but as the land they 

" Matthew Henderson. See Wing, Hist, of Cumberland Co., 252. 

" In the land records of Carlisle, Pa., the names of John Nicholson and 
James Nicholson occur frequently. For a grant of mining land by the Common- 
wealth of Penna. to John Nicholson, see Cumberland County Record Book, 
vol. I, N, p. 132. No Stolker or similar name was found. 

62 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

acquired yields good wheat, the price of which is so 
high, they are beginning to have comfort, and some 
are already building large bams. 

At McCrake's'^ Tavern, 7 miles, — bad lodging, 
isolated on the road. Still the same little farms, 
newly cleared, and without water; the inhabitants 
have to get it i or 2 miles away from their house. 

At Shippensburg, — ymiles, stopped with Reppy,^^ 
good house, clean, good wine, but bad food. 

Mr. M. Hendresson, deputy surveyor of this dis- 
trict, told me that Jos.[?] Shippen's father, of Phila- 
delphia, had bought here 3000 acres of land from the 

Page jp of Manuscript 
Shippensburg 2o8>^ miles 

the Penns, and then tried to make here a town, but 
though it was begun in 1754, Shippensburg remains 
a poor village; the houses are near one another and 
form, along the highway, only one long street, more 
than a mile long, and many vacant lots among about 
140 buildings or houses, among which there are not 
30 two-stories high and built of stone; the rest are 
all wretched huts of wood and logs and clay. The 
lots are 52 feet 4 inches front, by 217 feet 4 inches 
deep. Why these 4 inches, is the question asked: 
so that the lots are exactly 4 times deeper than wide. 
Finally, the owners of lots are subjected to a perpetual 
12 s. rent for the lots acquired before the Revolution, 
and 4 dollars "quit-rent" since 1783, or £25 in one 

" Wm. McCracken, Newton Township. — Tavern Licenses, 1780-1837, in 
Cumberland County Manuscripts, vol. VI, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 
McCracken^s is given on old maps of the period. 

^* Capt. Wm. Rippey. — Tavern Licenses, 1780-1837, in Cumberland County 
Manuscripts, vol. VI, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. See also Hist, of Cumb. 
and Adams Counties (1886), p. 262. 

Pennsylvania 63 

payment; at which rate there are still plenty of lots 
to be had. 

What remains of the 3000 acres is a part along the 
road adjoining the village — inferior quality — which 
Mr. Shippen sells for £6 an acre, the same price he 
sold the best land of these 3000 acres. 

Except this inferior land of Shippen's, there 
remains no more uncultivated land in a larger piece 
than 100 or 200 acres in Franklin County. There 
everything is divided in 200 to 300 acre farms and 
no farms to be bought under £10. The lands in 
Franklin County's "Upper End" are very level and 
good. Those in Bedford County, which is situated 
beyond the North or Blue Mountains, are very 
broken and mountainous, and there are large pieces 
of ground, all uncultivated, to buy. 

In Shippensburg, the price (November 1794) of 
butcher's meat is 4 to 4-^ pence, pork meat 3 to 
3->2 pence, butter i s. to 15 pence, a barrel of flour 
— 180 pounds — ^5, wheat i dollar a bushel, barley 
5 shillings a bushel, oats 2/6 (the army 3/6),''^ hay 
8 dollars a ton. 

Baltimore is the market where the produce is sent. 
The carting from here to Baltimore is 10 s. per 
barrel of flour and J/^ guinea from here to Phila- 

Page 40 of Manuscript 
2oS-}4 [miles]. Chambersburg. 

November 8th, left Shippensburg, still following 
the edge of the South Mountains, though descending 
more towards the plain — better, or less-bad land, 

^ Army contingents, called out on account of the Whiskey Insurrection and 

camped in the vicinity, paid more than the usual price. 

64 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

limestone land, of the 2nd rate; farms established 
for 5 or 6 years, whose dwellings are here and there 
changed for better ones, etc. 

In Chambersburg, 11 miles, had luncheon at 
Shriock's^^ — very good inn. 

At the time of General Bradoc's [Braddock's] last 
war against the Indians there was a fort built here; 
a few houses were built and Chambers, to whom the 
land belonged, tried to found a settlement, which for 
a long time remained undeveloped, but, at the time 
of the severing of the territory which now forms 
Francklin County, which was then included in 
Cumberland County's jurisdiction (that is to say in 
1784) having been able to make Chambersburg the 
County Town, where the County Court had its seat, 
then every Inhabitant went there. Chambersburg 
is a town well situated on Conococheague Creek. 
The place Is very pleasant, and from the quantity of 
new brick houses, neatly built. It appears that the 
place Is prosperous. There may be 300 houses; a 
number of mechanics for everything, several stores. 
The Court House Is very neatly built, the jail new 
and strong. In which there were 6 robbers. The 
Creek waterfall allows the erection of 6 flour-mills In 
this neighborhood. There Is a very well-built paper- 
mill, where 2 vats are working. The paper made 
there Is good. The mill is working for Messrs. J. 
Scott, '^^ Tower and Co.; they sell fine paper for i 
guinea a ream, consisting here of 20 quires of 24 
sheets each. 

^^ "Henry Shryock, Chambersburg." — Tavern licenses, in Franklin County 
Manuscripts, 1788-1837 (unbound), State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

"John Scott and Co. established a paper mill at Chambersburg in 1788. — 
I. H. M'Cauley, Historical Sketch of Franklin Co. (1878), 96. 

Pennsylvania 65 

They are beginning to put sidewalks in the main 
street, near the market. 

Page 41 of Manuscript 
219-J^ [miles] 

Everything is clean and full of animation. Not 
enough trade with the inland farmers. Mr. Cham- 
bers has a big house here. There is a printing plant 
for an English newspaper, once a week, for 2 dollars 
a year. No new church yet, only two huts where 
they preach in English, — Presbyterian and Church 
of England. 

After having laid out the streets and divided the 
lots 64 feet front by 256 feet deep, he sold these lots 
In the beginning for £3, and also subjected them to 
a 2 dollar "quit-rent" but now you cannot get lots 
In the main street for less than £100, and £40 to 
60 in side-streets, but these are still rather empty, 
except the one beginning in the middle of the main 
street. The inhabitants complain because there is 
no town-hall as in the towns laid out by the Penns. 
There are two brick-factories; the bricks are sold for 
20 s. or 2-J^ dollars for 1000. 

The land on the south of the town is better than 
near Shippensburg, and its nature is what Is called 
lime-stone of the second rate; the little cleared part 
which the owners are willing to sell brings from £5 
to 6, and for £7, 10 or 8, you find 200 to 300 acre 
farms, partly cleared, with house and barn. Flours 
and grains are sent to the Baltimore market. 

At Thompson's Tavern, '^^ i2-}4 miles — bad lodg- 

^' Alexander Thompson, Franklin Township (since l8oo in Adams County). 
— ^Tavern licenses in York County Papers (MSS.), vol. VI, State Library, Harris- 
burg, Pa. Also tax list in Hisi. of Cumberland and Adams Counties (1886), Part 

66 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

ing, on the top of the mountain; the road from 
Chambersburg here is very bad. It goes over the 
mountain range called here "South Ridge". It is 
hard work for the horses. 

Here I met the York County surveyor, who was 
surveying the land of these high mountains for some 
speculators who lately located these lands at the 
land office for 6 pence per acre, being in the old 
purchase. It is to deceive buyers with the big words, 
"mill seats, timber", etc. There is hardly here and 
there a tillable piece of ground, but how to reach 
them ! All the less bad of this very bad mountainous 
land had been taken a long time ago. 

Left Thompson, and by 5 more miles of bad road, 
through the mountain, and the rest fair, [arrived] 

Russel's Tavern, '^^ 9 miles, fair lodging for a tavern 
isolated on the highway, where there is no better 
one for 30 or 40 miles. This 

Page 42 of Manuscript 
241 [miles] 

Russel's Tavern is in York County, in the plain, 3 
or 4 miles from the South Mountains. 

In this district the soil is of different kinds; the 

III, 252. Thompson's tavern must have been on or near the present property 
of H. W. Newman (1921), east of Graeffenburg P. O., this being an old tavern 

^'Probably the tavern of Joshua Russell. — See tavern licenses in York 
County Papers (MSS.), vol. VI, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. Also tax list 
in Hist, of Cumberland and Adams Counties (1886), Part III, 252. The present 
Adams County was a part of York County until 1800. Russell's tavern was 
probably at or near the present Mummasburg. Above tax list refers to Joshua 
Russell's tavern as a " stone house." Hence it may have been the present 
Carrie farm house, 3 \i miles north of Gettysburg. The expense account calls 
the locality "Marsh Creek" (p. 90 below). This name, however, was ap- 
plied to a large, ill-defined district in the early days. 

Pennsylvania 67 

price in general of the "middling good land", it is 
"Sklit land",^° that is to say, clay and stones, which 
is not worth as much as the "Hme stone land": farms 
are generally from 200 to 300 acres: 140 plough land, 
20 meadow, 140 woods, house and barn, — bring 
from £6 to £10 [per acre]. Many farm hands to 
hire for 2/6 in the summer, and 2 s. in the winter, 
^2 [dollar] at "harvest time". For £20, a hired 
man a — year. 

The land yields 12 to 15 bushels wheat, 20 bushels 
com, 15 to 40 bushels buckwheat, i to i-^ tons of 

All meadows are sown with timothy; little clover 
in this district. 

Price of wheat, now November 1794, 7 s./6, corn 
4/6 to 5, hay 6 dollars a ton, but not easy to sell, 
every one having enough; moreover many cattle are 

There are the mills of three flour merchants within 
a radius of a mile. They send the flour to Baltimore 
— 64 miles. The carting from here to there costs I 
dollar a barrel. The load is 12 barrels of 180 [lbs.], 
drawn by 5 horses, or 4 strong ones. 

Great complaint of the farmers about the mis- 
conduct, thefts, etc., of the now free negroes. 

November 9th, left Russel's Tavern, and after 10 
miles of level and bad land, although cleared, partly 
plowed, and pasture, poor farms, — then the country 
rises, slightly, broken by wide and low hills, better 
cultivated. The soil is red gravel. 

At Abbots Town, 15 miles, had dinner with Jones, 
at the Sign of the Indian Queen, — fair lodging. 

^° On "sklit-land" see note 67, p. 58 above. 

68 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

Mr. Abbot,^^ a farmer, >^ mile from here, started 
this place as a town or village. There are 35 houses, 
the principal ones are inns. The inhabitants are all 
Germans, descendants of Lancaster farmers. There 
are 2 small 

Page 4J of Manuscript 
256 [miles] 

German churches, one Presbyteidan, the other Luth- 

Mr. Abbot is dead and his will is such that his 
sons cannot sell lots until their children are of age. 
The location of the village is on the top of a low and 
very large hill. He divided the land into house-lots, 
4 rods front by eleven rods deep; the first lots were 
sold for £5 besides a perpetual quit rent of I dollar. 
They now pay for the lots from £20 to £25, and 
I dollar quit-rent. The farms, generally of 200 
acres, from £4 to £6 [per acre] and for choice and 
best land, as much as £10. The soil is mainly red 
gravel, rather good for wheat. 

A cord of wood, hickory and oak, sells here for 5 
shillings; a pound of butter for 10 pence. 

An acre yields 12 to 16 bushels wheat, 20 bushels 
corn, 10 to 40 bushels buckwheat, I to i-}4 tons of 
hay. Price of wheat 9 s. a bushel. There are 2 
mills in this district, which send flour to Baltimore. 
Price of corn 4 s./6, price of hay 6 dollars a ton. A 
strong and good wagon, well built, etc., costs £30. 

From Abbot's Town, the country for 6 or 8 miles 
is a large plain, whose land is inferior and of red 
gravel; few farms, but a good many fields and pasture. 

"John Abbott. — Hist, of Cumberland and Adams Counties (1886), Part III, 
p. 216. 

Pennsylvania 69 

Then the land rises gradually, larger and broader 
hills; the quality of the soil becomes better, generally 
"limestone land"; the hollows of the valleys are well 
watered pastures, the slopes of the high hills and the 
whole of the lower ones, are grain-fields, and the 
places where the soil is sterile are the woods, which 
are part of the farms. This variety of field and 
forest always makes a very pleasant landscape where 
the country is well populated, as is the case in counties 
where Germans have settled; on each 200 acre farm, 
half or a large third remains in forest. 

Page 44 of Manuscript 
256 miles 

At York Town, county-seat of York County, 15 

miles, stopped at Springel's,^" at the sign of , 

— YG-Tj good inn. N. B. Coming from Russel's 
to York Town, ... to go through Mc Collister's 
Town,^^ a pleasant German Catholic settlement, 
good road — beautiful country. The Catholic church 
very fine and new, on the hill-top; everything, on all 
sides, is cultivated or in pasture. 

November loth, stayed at York Town. The first 
poor German settlers arrived in this county in 1729, 

^- The nearest name found in the license records, for York Borough, is 
Spangler. Several of that name kept taverns at York in the early period, not- 
ably Baltzer Spangler. — Tavern Licenses, in York County Papers (MSS.), vol. 
VI, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

*' Reference apparently to Hanover which was frequently called Mc- 
Allister's Town from its founder, Richard McAllister. — Prowell, Hist, of York 
County, I, 807-808. See also Reily, Conewago, A Collection of Catholic Local 
History (1886). — On account of some illegible words it seems impossible to 
determine whether Cazenove passed through Hanover. His description of the 
place sounds as if he had seen it, and he may have made a side trip on his 
saddle horse for that purpose. On the other hand his mileage, usually quite 
accurate, is far from including such a detour. Since his description of the place 
is inserted as a note after his arrival at York it may have been merely the 
account of an informant at the latter place. 

70 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

and in 1741 Yorktown was begun by the Proprietors, 
the Penns, who laid out the land for a town, and 
built the court-house. The lots are 56 feet front, by 
250 deep, subjected to a quit-rent of from 2 to 8 
dollars a lot, according to location, but the inhabitants 
contest this right with the Penns. 

The town is in the valley, on Codorus Creek, a 
little river always rich in water, permitting several 
mills of all kinds in the neighborhood; the common 
is unusually spacious; otherwise the place is not 
pleasant, although the streets are wide and well laid 
out, not paved nor lighted, but a sidewalk in front 
of the new houses. The court-house, placed in the 
middle of the square, ridiculously shuts off the view 
of the whole of the 2 main streets. 

( [Side endorsement :] As in every inland town of 
Pennsylvania, there is a quantity of taverns and inns, 
where the people come to talk and drink, morning 
and evening, as in the cafes of European cities. 
Also many stores where, in each one, everything is 
sold at retail. You find everything necessary in 
utensils, clothing, and furniture, for the lower class, 
but nothing dainty or choice. 

A new building for the offices and records, rather 
elegantly built, next to the court-house, which is very 
much disparaged by it. There may be about 400 
houses, about 60 of which are of brick and newly 
built, the rest of "logs and mortar". 

Mr. James Smith, Esq., and the families of Mr. 
Hartley, ^^ a lawyer and congressman, Mr. Harris,*^ 
and General Miller, ^^ have been most obliging, and 

" Col. Thomas Hartley. — Prowell, Hist, of York County, I, 212. 
^ Probably William Harris. — See Heads of Families, First U. S. Census, 
1790, Penna., p. 281. 

^ Gen. Henry Miller. — Prowell, Hist, of York County, I, 205. 

Pennsylvania 7 1 

are the best society here. Mrs. Hall, Mr. Hartley's 
daughter, is a beautiful woman. % of the inhabi- 
tants are Germans and mechanics. There are 9 

About the prices of provisions, land, lots, etc., see 
one of the printed papers filled in for York Town. 
Mr. John Forsyth, the district surveyor, can give 
information about the price of land, etc. 

The part of Pennsylvania now forming York 
County was still inhabited by Indians in 1750. 
The first German settlers came in 1728 and settled 
among them, and the Indians peaceably let them 
cultivate the part they liked. The present land- 
owners, farmers, are the children of these first 
settlers, who, after having served 3 or 4 years for the 

Page 4S of Manuscript 
271 miles 

of the trip from Europe to America, settled on the 
land, and gradually thrived; several of their children, 
being now from 50 to 60 years old, own farms of 4, 
5, and 800 acres. 

November nth, left Yorktown, by a good road 
and through a very well cultivated country; this and 
Mc CoUister's districts are the best land in the 
county: it is the center; the two sides are mountainous 
and inferior lands. 

At Wright's Ferry, 11 miles; it is here that you 
cross the Susquehanna, on good pontoons. Here the 
river is a mile and a quarter wide, swift current, 
wild and high shores. Paid for 4 people, the coach, 
and 5 horses, 9 s., or i dollar, i s., 6 p. 

So you enter Lancaster County where the land 

72 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

gets better as you go; the whole country Is well culti- 
vated and what forests the farmers keep are stocked 
with trees of the right kind, — chestnut, locust, wal- 
nut, maple, white oak. It is a succession of hills, not 
too high, and the aspect of the country is very beau- 
tiful. A perpetual change of hills and valleys gives 
the country a very pleasent rolling aspect and does 
not prevent cultivation; the farmers' houses are 
generally placed in the shallow valleys, formed by the 
slopes of 3 or 4 wide hills, cultivated to the top. 

Lancaster Town, 11 miles; it is the county-seat, or 
the town where the Lancaster County court holds 
its sessions. Stopped with Stake ;^^ pretty bad; I 
ought to have stopped with Mr. Slough, ^^ where one 
is very comfortable. 

The city of Lancaster is the largest inland city of 
the United States. It was founded in 17 — by Mr. 
Hamilton,^^ the owner of this ground. He had the 
building-lots divided, 65 feet front, by 240 deep, 
subjected to a perpetual rent — "quit-rent," of 4 to 
100 shillings sterling per lot, according to location, or 
so much in cash for the redemption of this quit-rent; 
but to-day Mr. Hamilton's successor gets more than 
£1000 a year from Lancaster's quit-rents. 

The first inhabitants were Germans, and ^ of the 
present inhabitants are also Germans. There is a 
large town-hall and several very good brick houses, 
several smaller ones, also of brick, and a large 

" Christian Stake. — ^Tavern licenses, in Lancaster County Manuscripts, 
vol. XV, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

** Probably the reference is to Matthias Slough, who kept the "White Swan" 
Hotel at this period. — Ellis and Evans, Hist, of LancasUr County, p. 396. 

"James Hamilton, in 1730, drafted the plot of the town of Lancaster. — 
Ellis and Evans, History of Lancaster County (1883), p. 360. Wm. Riddle, 
LancasUr, Old and New (1917), 14. 

'<a-^ _ *-»^Eul. 

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Pennsylvania 73 

number of log houses in the less conspicuous parts. 
About 900 houses 

Page 46 of Manuscript 
293 miles Lancaster 

and 6000 inhabitants, mainly mechanics — many 
taverns, several stores or shops; not paved or lighted, 
but good sidewalks. The city is situated on 2 hills, 
which are part of a very great number of hills, 
forming thus a very large and [comparatively] level 
land, surrounded on all sides by higher mountains. 
The Big Conestoga Creek is near the city, and always 
full of water, although it is too much intercepted by 
rocks to be navigable as far as the Susquehanna where 
this creek has its mouth. 

The broad and long main street and the shorter 
one which crosses it at the court-house, the best 
quarter; the court-house is newly and neatly built, 
but is in the middle of the square, which, to begin 
with, Is not very large. The city plan is like Phila- 
delphia's, so far as the streets already built up are 
concerned. ^° 

The house of General Ross^^ is the most notable. 
The new German Lutheran church is very well built, 
of brick, and its steeple is the best built and the 
most elegant one in the United States. It Is a pity 
that the immense statues of the 4 Evangelists are too 
small by half. The city surroundings are very 
pleasant. General Hand^^ has his farm >^ mile 
away on Conestoga Creek; Its location is very 

^''At this point in his Journal Cazenove made a rough diagram of the 
principal streets of Lancaster, showing the courthouse in the center square. 

" Probably James Ross. — Harris, Biographical Hist, of Lancaster County, 508. 

^ General Edward Hand. — See Ellis and Evans, Hist, of Lancaster County, 

74 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

country-like, the house good, and the family very 
polite. The families of Hubley^^ (lawyer), Ketter^'* 
(la'\;vyer), Ross^^ (senator), Sainseigher^^ (merchant), 
are very obliging to strangers. Few dinners are 
given here, but many tea parties. The young ladies 
I saw here are very well dressed, very much like 
Philadelphia ladies. Generally the young women 
and girls of this district seemed to me to have a 
rather pretty figure, good carriage, beautiful teeth 
and hair, not much grace, nor very easy manners. 
The most notable ones are beginning to learn a little 
music, but after all, the large number of children 
and limited fortunes do not permit of the expenditure 
for a refined education, so 

Page 47 of Manuscript 
293 [miles] Lancaster 

a lone harpsichord teacher can hardly live, and the 
drawing teacher has only 2 or 3 pupils, although 
they have been here only 2 years, and by the deter- 
mination of I [?] lady. 

During the Fair, which lasts for three days in 
June, and while Court is held (which is once every 
3 months) all the County farmers and their children 
always come to Lancaster and then everything is 
good cheer. All the young farmers, men and women, 
must have pleasure, as they have none the rest of 
the year: people say that nothing is more interesting 

" John Hubley. — ^Harris, Biographical Hist, of Lancaster County, 322-323. 

** John W. Kittera. — Harris, Biographical Hist, of Lancaster County, 345. 

* There was at this time a United States Senator from Penna. by the name 
of James Ross who may possibly have been residing temporarily in Lancaster 
at this time. — Biographical Congressional Directory, 967. 

•• Paul Zantzinger, who manufactured clothing on a large scale during the 
Revolution, and later. — Ellis and Evans, Hist, of Lancaster County, 369. 

Pennsylvania 75 

than their loud joy and the big kisses exchanged 
everywhere by the sweet-hearts who fill the streets. 
So, young people have an opportunity to see each 
other, and marriages follow, while the fathers get 
drunk In the taverns. 

About prices of provisions, building lots, land, etc., 
see one of the printed papers filled for Lancaster. 

There are many flour-mlUs on the large and small 
Conestoga creeks, where much fiour is made for the 
Philadelphia market. The millers are very rich. 
There are many Lancaster farmers who own as much 
as 10, 15, 20 thousand £, In land, and funds lent on 
mortgages on other lands. This does not keep 
them from coming with their long linen-trousers, 
and themselves driving a cart-load of wood to the 
Lancaster market. See folio [?]" 

I saw the "patent-stove", invented by Mr. 
Hietrlck. The principle seems good to me, but 
there are many inconveniences which experience 
will change. 

Stayed in Lancaster until November 13th, and 
[then passing] continuously through an extensively 
cultivated country, where farms are adjoining, good 
limestone land, fine barns, large grain-fields, hickory, 
walnut, and white oak wood, [arrived at] 

Mc Clahan's Tavern,^^ 16 miles, pretty bad tavern, 
isolated on the highway. 

In this district farms are from 200 to 300 acres, 
and thus larger than near Lancaster — still good land 

" Perhaps a reference to page 60 of manuscript, see p. 82 below. 

'* John McCleland, Salisbury Township. — Tavern licenses, in LancasUr 
County Mantucripts, vol. XV, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. The servant who 
kept the expense account indicated Pequea as the location of this tavern. See 
p. 91 below. 

y6 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

and beautiful country (lime stone land). You have 
to pay for farms with "improvements" from £15 
to £20 an acre. I went to see here Leonard El- 
maker's farm. It is of 320 acres, 200 of which are 
cultivated. There is also a flour-mill and one for 
wood. He is a very rich farmer of the district; the 
whole family (7 children) were having a very bad 
dinner around a very dirty little table, and the 
furniture in the main room was not worth 200 dol- 
lars, and the whole farm is like those already men- 
tioned. They say he is worth £15,000 at least [?]. 

Page 48 of Manuscript 
309 [miles]. Chester County 

November 14th, left Mc Clahan's Tavern, through 
part of Lancaster [County], still fine land and 
beautiful meadows, 2 miles; then entered Chester 
County where for 10 miles the land is less level, more 
broken by very high hills, generally "barren land", 
but afterwards you go down in the valley and arrive 

Downing's Town [Downingtown], Chester County, 
16-^ miles; stopped at Downing's,^^ at the sign of 
Washington, very good inn. N. B. 33 miles from 

In this county, farms are generally about 300 
acres, half of which remains as woods — generally 
lime-stone land; a farm with house and good bam, 
orchard, etc., sells for £12 [per acre] in the valley, 
and the price of land on the mountain, bordering 

" Hunt Downing. — ^Tavern licenses in Chester County Manuscripts, vol. XI, 
State Library, Harrisburg. — See also Futhey and Cope, Hist, of Chester County 
(1881), p. 419. — ^The old inn is still standing (1921) in the eastern outskirts of 
Downingtown and is occupied as a private residence. 

Pennsylvania 77 

the valley, called "hill-land", sells for £3 and Is 
kept by the farmers for woodland for their farm use. 
Generally everything Is grain-land or sown in clover, 
when they give it a rest. They fertilize their soil 
with lime, taken from their land, and with plaster 
of Paris; this latter gives a good yield in hay. 

An acre in the good valley land generally yields 
15 to 20 bushels of wheat, but these last 2 or 3 years 
they have been annoyed in this district by the 
Hessian fly and this year (1794) by mildew — so they 
cultivate corn more extensively, and sow their fields 
in clover, because when there is not enough wheat 
sown, the Hessian fly attacks barley; 30 to 35 bushels 
corn [per acre], 20 to 25 bushels barley, i-'j/^ to 2 or 
2-^2 tons of clover in 2 cuttings. 

Send their flour and produce to Philadelphia — 
many mills, a few forges near the mountain, where 
there is plenty of wood, but no mines. 

Very few Germans in this county, except in the 
3 townships Spikland [Pikeland], Vincent, and 
Coventry. English Presbyterians and Quakers pre- 
vail in this county, also many* Anabaptists in the 
3 above townships. 

The price for transportation from here to Phila- 
delphia is 15 to 18 pence a 100 pounds, and 2 s./6> 
for a barrel of flour. 

You find 

Page 4Q of Manuscript 
325-J^ [miles]. Chester County 

very easily in this district workmen to help with 
harvest for 3 s. a day, with meals and a pint of 


Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

There is here a good English school for reading, 
writing and arithmetic. 

Beef sells here for 3 to 3-^ [pence] a pound, 
pork 5 to 6 dollars a 100 pound, and they send it 
to the Philadelphia market and sell it to the Phila- 
delphia butchers for from 6 to 7 dollars a 100 pound. 
The price of butter is 14 pence here and is sent to 
the Philadelphia market. 

The smallness of grain-crop, since the Hessian 
fly [came], causes all the Chester County farmers 
to attend to poultry raising, making butter, putting 
their land in pasture, all clover, no timothy, and 
raising cattle for the Philadelphia market. 

Mr. Joseph Downing, a farmer here, has his farm 
of more than a thousand acres, almost all in the 
valley. Here they tried late sowing last year, not 
until near September 20th, in order to avoid the 
Hessian fly, but they regretted it, as there was no 
harvest at all, having had first drought after sowing 
and then it was too late in the season for the grain 
to develop. Now they try to use much fertilizer. 
They sow here 3 "pecks" of wheat per acre, that 
is to say ^ of a bushel, as 4 "pecks" make a bushel. 

They find that for cattle-feed, it is better to plant 
potatoes than turnips. 

They pay county tax 24 to 40 shillings, poor tax 
24 to 40, road tax 12 to 20, according to the size of 
the farms. Church (free), the richest one pays 
from 2 to 3 dollars. 

Every house and barn is built of limestone, no 
brick-factories. The quality of land in Chester 
County is quite varied; the county is crossed in 
the north and south by 2 rows of mountains, not 

Pennsylvania 79 

very high, but too high to be estimated of great 
value for cultivation. The land of the south 
mountains (chestnut) £3 an acre. The land of 
the north mountains, generally oak, for £3 an 
acre.i°o /.; 

The land south of the mountains Is fair, and is 
worth £7 to. £8 an acre, for 2 or 300 acre farms. 
The wood on the south mountains chlfefly chestnut. 

The valley where the land Is level and "lime- 
stone". Farms with improvements, that is to say 
In activity [?], and ^4 in cultivation, are worth £12 
an acre. 

The land In the north, beyond the mountains is 
sklit-stone,^°^ stony, but good for grain, Is worth 
from £5 to £6 an acre, for 2 to 400 acre farms. 
N. B. The trees on the north mountains are 
generally oak. 

Page £0 of Manuscript 
325-3^ [miles] 

November 15th, left Downings T. [Downlngtown], 
passing through a country partly level, partly 
broken with hills, near [?] [arrived] at 

Fornlstak's Tavern,^^^ 10 miles, rather bad lodging, 
on the highway. This Fornistak belongs to the 
Tunkers [Dunkers] sect (all Germans), and con- 
sequently has a long beard, takes Saturday for his 
rest and church-day, has been baptised by Immersion 

1°" The three nest following paragraphs Cazenove arranged in parallel 
columns and sketched a mountain range between the first and second, and 
another range between the second and third paragraphs. 

^^ On "sklit land" see note 67, p. 58 above. 

10* This was the old Warren Tavern, still standing (1921), kept in 1794 by 
Caspar Fahnestock and his son Charles. Sachse, The Wayside Inns on the 
Lancaster Roadside (1912), 55 ff. See also Chester County Manuscripts, vol. XI, 
State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

8o Cazenove Journal: 1794. 

and when he is in a Church of his denomination, has 
a right to give his opinion when the minister is 
through preaching, etc. The seat of this sect is in 
Euphrata [Ephrata], a village of Lancaster County, 
in Pennsylvania: there live those who do not marry, 
sisters in one house, brothers in another. There are 
now in Euphrata [Ephrata] only 13 sisters and 6 
brothers unmarried: their clothing is a kind of robe 
of grayish wool, long, with a hood nearly like the 
Carthusian friars. Their system is intensified ana- 
baptism. The sect is gradually dying out. Those 
who live in Euphrata [Ephrata] and who are un- 
married, have their money in common. But every 
detail on this sect is found in Morse, Geography, 
Volume I, page 262. Boston, 1793. Mr. Fornistak 
showed me a big quarto, printed in Euphrata [Eph- 
rata], 1752, "Sectionen betrostend das Schule des 
Einsamen Lebens" [sic]. 

At Miller's Tavern,^°^ 12 miles — good inn, on the 
road. Here farms are generally 150 acres. The 
price in general average, £10 an acre; "clay soil, 
poor ground, most worn out"; the short distance 
from Philadelphia is its great value. 

November i6th, 1794, arrived in the morning at 
Philadelphia, 11 miles, making altogether 358-^ 

miles, through the Jerseys in the counties , 

and in Pennsylvania through the counties, North- 
ampton, Berks, Dauphin, Cumberland, Franklin, 
York, Lancaster, Chester. 

"'The old Buck Inn, still standing (1921) between Haverford and Bryn 
Mawr. In the tavern licenses of Delaware County "John Miller, Haverford" 
is given in 1796, and "Jonathan Miller," 1797. — Unbound Manuscripts, State 
Library, Harrisburg, Pa. — ^Jonathan Miller owned the Buck Inn property from 
1794 until his death about 1840. From this old inn Washington wrote one of 
his most famous despatches to Congress, Sept. 15, 1777. 

Pennsylvania 8 1 

From October 21 to November 16, making 26 days, 
spent during the trip, in a 4 horse-coach, and [with] 
a saddle horse, coachman, postiHon, Petit and myself, 

5 horses, 4 people, dollars . Everywhere in the 

best inns; the horses well fed; had breakfast, luncheon, 
and dinner. One rainy day, two snowy ones, No- 
vember 14th and 15th, — all the other days dry, and 
magnificent weather; often the sun was so hot that 
I was obliged to put up my carriage-hood, because 
I was inconvenienced by the heat of the sun. Gen- 
erally roads which must be nearly impassable after 

[Here follows a rough diagram in semicircles 
indicating, as follows, the author's idea of the various 
layers of Pennsylvania population.] 

First nucleus, Quakers. 

Second layer, Germans. 

Third layer, beyond the Susquehanna, Irish and 

Fourth layer, beyond the mountains, Irish, Scotch, 
New Englanders. 

Pages 51—59 of Manuscript 

[Some of these pages are blank, or only partially 
filled. Such writing as there is, consists of scores, 
even hundreds, of questions or topics, apparently for 
the guidance of the author in securing information, 
chiefly about farms and farming. The following, 
from the beginning of page 54, is given by way of 

When do new settlers arrive? 

During what season do they go there and how? 

What do they own ? 

How do they live? 

82 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

How long does It take for his farm to produce a 
living for him? 

[Such questions cover, among many others, the 
following topics: clearing land, building houses and 
barns, making maple sugar, temperature in winter 
and summer, native fruits, fish, game, progress of 
emigration, farming methods, fertilizer, mills, stores, 
transportation of products, roads, bridges, social life, 
etc., etc. — Page ^9 refers apparently to a projected 
journey by the author or his agent through central 
New York, with some "special questions after having 
passed Schenectady." For example:] 

What is the produce of a 150-acre farm? 

Who makes the roads and keeps them In good 
condition ? 

What means for produce-transportation — ^what 
price by water [?] per ton to Fort Stanwix, Oswego, 
Geneva, Canandaigua, Niagara? 

How long to arrive there — dangers ? 

How much will the Western Canal shorten the 
time and expense of shipping? 

How many boats used on the Mohawk — their 
cost — where built — expense of up-keep ? 

Page 60 of Manuscript 
German Farmers. 

They give as the reason for the lack of neatness 
and improvements of the farms, which the rich 
farmers own in Pennsylvania, that generally the 
father, when he dies, leaves the farm to his oldest 
son, mortgaged or In debt for the other children's 
shares. Then the new owner exerts himself and 
employs all his savings in the payment of the debt; 

Pennsylvania 83 

so being used to think only of making money, he 
keeps on after he has paid out. Very often also the 
father, having many sons, buys farms part cash and 
part time-payment and gives this farm to his son, 
but indebted: the desire to pay for it is the son's 
great preoccupation, and being brought up in pri- 
vation and used to look at wealth as the only good 
and at enjoyment as nothing, so used to doing nothing 
but earn money to pay for his farm, he continues 
until his death, and it is so from father to son. 

I visited several farms in the famous Lancaster 
County — belonging to farmers known to be worth 
from 10 to 15 thousand pounds. I found them 
having for dinner potatoes, bacon, and buckwheat 
cakes; tin goblets, a dirty little napkin instead of a 
table cloth, on a large table — for downstairs rooms, 
a kitchen and a large room with the farmer's bed 
and the cradle, and where the whole family stays 
all the time; apples and pears drying on the stove, 
a bad little mirror, a walnut bureau — a table — 
sometimes a clock; on the second floor, tiny little 
rooms where the family sleep on pallets, with cur- 
tains, without furniture. 

No care is taken to keep the entrance to the house 
free of stones and mud — not one tree — not one 
flower. In the vegetable garden, weeds intermingled 
with cabbages and a few turnips and plants. In 
brief, with the exception of 

Page 61 of Manuscript 

the size of the barn and a larger cultivated area, you 
do not distinguish between the rich Pennsylvania 
farmer and the poor farmer of other states. 

84 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

In the Downings Town [Downingtown] Inn, 
Chester County, where I spent the night there were 
that same evening 14 Lancaster farmers; each one 
was driving a big 4-horse wagon, with 12 barrels of 
flour, to Philadelphia. I found them in a room 
next to the kitchen, all lying on the floor in a circle, 
their feet to the fire, each one on one or two bags of 
oats which they have with them to feed the horses 
on the way; they were covered with a poor blanket, 
no cap, and all dressed; — this lodging did not cost 
them anything — the inn keeper gave them this 
shelter to be able to sell them the small quantity of 
liquor they buy. In this group there were farmers 
known to be worth from £6000 to 8000 in good 
land, and money lent on mortgage upon good lands. 

Page 62 of Manuscript 

Although several German farmers in Berks, Dau- 
phin, and Lancaster Counties, have fine stone houses, 
2 stories high, with English windows, etc., the inside 
is almost unfurnished; in the large fine room an 
immense stove on which the dishes are still standing; 
potatoes and turnips on the floor; beds generally 
without curtains, no mirror, nor good chairs, nor 
good tables and wardrobes. 

Probably one of the causes of this slovenliness 
and lack of comfort is that they do not know any 
better, for the German farmers who cross the Sus- 
quehanna to settle there, and especially the younger 
generation, take more the habits of the Irish who 
like comfort more. You notice especially the cloth- 
ing of the German farmers and their wives who have 
an opportunity to see other examples than their 

Pennsylvania 85 

father's and mother's; they have English or American 
clothing, and from clothes it will pass to house- 
furnishings, etc. 

Pages 63 to 6s of Manuscript 


Page 66 of Manuscript 

[Very rough and scrappy notes on a trip, taken 
or projected. Mention of Sunbury, Bald Eagle, 
Penn's Valley, Buffalo Valley, Northumberland 
County, Carlisle, Lewis Town, Juniata County, 
Lancaster, Conewago Creek, Shippensburg; references 
to iron works and iron mines; Col. Patent [?]; Mr. 
Miles or Miller, of Philadelphia; Mr. Foster; several 
names of people and places are nearly or quite 


Page 67 of Manuscript 

[Rough notes on a trip, taken or projected, from 
Bethlehem to Wind Gap, and Stroud's tavern.] 
There ask about Major Smith, whom I saw in 
Philadelphia, and see him, who lives 2 miles away 
from Stroud's, who will tell me whether to go further 
to see the new town which Mr. Bides (sic) is building 
on the Delaware, in Upper Smithfield. 

This Major Smith, who came to offer me land in 
his district (May 27th) is French; has been an officer 
in the army of Congress; seems to be a well bred 
man, who lives secluded on his farm, where he has 
his library and studies chemistry, etc. 

It will be a good opportunity to know this district 
^ell— his son was a Captain of Hussars, and lately 
came to join him. 

Page 68 of Manuscript 

86 Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

Page 6g of Manuscript 

[Rough notes.] 
To see part of the interior of Pennsylvania Mr. 
Pollock advised me to go from Philadelphia to 

[Montclare (?), Birdsboro, Wilson's iron-works 
and iron-mines, MiiHin's farm; there to Harrisburg; 
Silver Spring Tavern, Mr. Pollock's, Carlisle, Ship- 
pensburg, Conewago, York, Lancaster.] 

Everywhere the best lodgings are at the taverns 
where the stages stop, but choose the days when the 
stages do not arrive. 

At Shippensburg ask if I can find good lodgings, 
and roads to go ahead to see Skinner's, Bedford, 
Berlin, Galatin (sic). 

Read in Morse [Geography] what to see; and 
letters for these places. 

N. B. — Indication of the road to Asylum. 

Page yo of Manuscript 


Page yi of Manuscript 

[Rough notes concerning a trip, taken or projected, 
from Philadelphia to New York through Bethlehem, 
Easton, Jersey, Morristown.] 

5 miles from Bethlehem, Mr. Lawrence's [?]. 
The Nicholson Co. coal mine is about 30 miles from 
Bethlehem on the Lehigh River, not far from Fort 
Allen, and on the [Tunkhannock] Creek. 

To Nazareth. 

The Dunkers. 

From there go to see the Wind Gap, in the Blue 
Mountains, about 20 miles — formerly the bed of 

Pennsylvania 87 

the Delaware. From there return towards the 
Delaware and cross It to go through Easton into 
Jersey. Spring ... [?] iron mines. 

Page 72 of Manuscript 
[The following expense account of the trip was 
probably kept by Petit, the servant of Mr. Cazenove. 
His gift apparently did not lie in the field of spelling. 
His words are a mixture of French and English, both 
constantly misspelled. Many places mentioned can 
be made out only by reference to the itinerary as 
given in the main body of the journal. The editor 
has therefore made it into English as best he could 
without burdening the text too much with the 
conventional editorial signs. The critical scholar is 
referred to the original manuscript.] 

Memorandiim Of All The Expenses In- 
curred ON Your Entire Trip. 
Oct., Sept. and Nov. 1794 

through Pennsylvania. [The 
preceding, in italics, Is In the handwriting of Mr. 
Cazenove. It was probably added later when he 
did not recollect the exact dates. The time of the 
trip did not Include September.] 

Pd. for transporting carriage and 
horses from Brooklyn to Port 
Hook [?] [Paulus Hook] 1-12- 

For the ferryman 3- 9 

Pd. the ferry, for you, for me, and 

the baggage I- 6 

Pd. to have the baggage hauled 
from the home of Mr. Le Roy 

88 Cazenove Journal: 1794 

("Roly") to the ferry 2- 6 

Given to the servant of Mr. Le 

Roy 16- 

Pd. for crossing the ferry from 
New York to Port Hook [?] 
[Paulus Hook] 4- 3 

Pd. for the food of horses and "de 
quite" [Apparently the stop 
for lunch] I- 3~ ^ 

For the boy - 2- 

Pd. for ferrying two rivers [prob- 
ably the Hackensack and Pas- 
saic] -12- 

Pd. at Newark for one day and 

two nights 4-12- 3 

For the stable-boy who recovered 
the baggage that was stolen 

For the maid 

Pd. for dinner [at Chatham] 
Oct. 1794 
24th Pd. for the night [at Hanover] 

For the boy and the maid 
25th Pd. for the night at Morristown 

For the boy and the maid 
26th Pd. for the night at Black River 

For the boy and the maid 

Pd. for dinner 

For the boy 

£16-19- S 

























Pennsylvania §9 

Page 7S 0/ Manuscript 
[Oct.] . £16-19- 5 

27th The night at [Mclntyre's] in 
For the boy and the maid 
28th The night at Easton 

For the boy and the maid 
Pd. for the ferry 
Pd. for greasing, and horse- 
29th Pd. for the night at Nazareth 
For the boy and the maid 
For soap, gloves, candle, and a 
30th The night at Bethlehem 
For the boy and the maid 
For an engraving 
Pd. for the ferry, at Allentown 
For refreshments 
For the night at Kutztown 
For the boy and the maid 
Pd. for refreshments 

2nd For two nights at Reading 
For the boy and the maid 
Pd. for dinner 
3rd The night at Myerstown 

For the boy and the maid 
4th The night at Lebanon 

For the maid 
5th The night at Hummelstown 
For the boy and the maid 

£41- 6- 







8-1 1 




















10 J 















■ 6 



- 6 


-10- 8 



- I- 

- 7 


■ 9 

90 Cazenove Journal: 17^4. 

Page 74 of Manuscript 

[Nov.] £41- 6- o 

Pd. "a quite" half dollar in | 

order to see the cave 3~ 9 | 

For mending the carriage pole i 

6th The night at Harrisburg 2- 7- 3 

For the boy and the maid 3- 9 

7th The night at Carlisle 2-16- 2 

For the boy and the maid 3- 9 

Pd. for having the horses fed 7- 6 

8th The night at Shippensburg 1-15- 6 

For the boy and the maid 3- 9 
For lunch at " Roumetonne " 

[Chambersburg !] 15- 
For the boy i 
9th The night at Marsh Creek i- 9- 5 /-" 
For the boy and the maid 3- 9 
For refreshments at Abbotts- 
town 9- 6 
loth Two nights at York 4-16-11 
For the boy and the maid 7- 6 
For shoeing the horses and 

mending the carriage 15-6 
nth Pd. for refreshments at [Wright's] 

ferry, and for ferrying 18-6 

1 2th Two nights at Lancaster 5-12- o 

For the boy and the maid 6 

Two pairs of chickens [?] 3 

Pd. for the bridge i- 6 

£65- 8- o 

Pennsylvania 9^ 

Page ys ^f Manuscript 
[Nov.] £65- 8- o 

13th The night at Pequea 

tavern 1-14- 4 

For the boy and the maid 3- 9 

For brandy i- 6 

14th The night at [Downingtown] 1-15- 3 

For the boy 3~ 9 

15th The night at Miller's Tavern 2- 5- i 

For the boy and the maid 3- 9 

Pd. for the ferry [across Schuyl- 
kill River] 2 
17th Pd. the little postilion for 15 
days and a half, at the rate 
of two dollars a day, plus 
one dollar as a tip, makes 12- o- o 

£83-17- 5 

in dollars 223-^ 
Received for the trip, 269 dollars 

Deduct above expenses, 223-% dollars 

leaves 45-M dollars in favor 
of Mr. C. 

[Note: — Toward the last of the above account, 
some of the dates and places seem not to tally with 
the itinerary of the main journal. The correct place 
has been inserted in brackets in a few cases. It is 
possible that the accounts of the last few days were 
made out from memory after the journey was ended. 
Some places also are omitted, perhaps because 
Cazenove paid the bills personally at those places.] 


Abbott, John, 68 note 

Abbottstown, 67-68, 90 

Adams County, 66 note 

Allen, William, 27 note 

Allen Spring, 43 

Allentown, 27-28, 89 

Anabaptist church, Morristown, 9 

Anabaptists, 77 

Anglican church, see Episcopal church 

Annville, 50 note 

Apples, 9, II, 12, 24; production, ll; 

8 bushels make I barrel of cider, 11 
Arpent, equal to about one and a half 

English acres, 12 note 

Bakery, 25, 31 
Bald Eagle, 85 
Baltimore, 60, 63, 65, 67, 68 
Barley, 77 

culture, 48, 59 

prices, 33, 38, 49, 63 

production, 11, 32, 35, 41, 77 
Beaumetz, z, xi 
Bedford, 86 
Bedford County, 63 
Beehives, 34 
Beeverhoud's, see Van Beverhoudt, 

Berks County, 30, 80 
Berlin, 86 
Bethlehem, vii, 23-27, 85, 86, 89; 

view of, 23 
Bides, Mr, 85 
Big Conestoga Creek, 73 
Big Spring, 30, 43 nou; property, 

Cazenove's statement on verified, 

Birdsboro, 86 
Black River, N. J., 10-13, 88 

Black slaves, see Negroes 
Blaine, Ephraim, 57 note 
Blue Mountains, 56, 60-61, 86 
Boarding, prices, 7, 33, 49 
Boarding-school at Bethlehem, 25 

Morristown, 10 

Newark, N. J., i, 2 
Boards, prices, 8 
Boats, 54; price, 38 
Books, for sale, 18 
Boonton (Boun Town), 6 
Boys' College at Nazareth, 20 
Braddock, General, 64 
Brewery, 22, 2$ 
Brick factories, Carlisle, 60 

Chambersburg, 65 

Harrisburg, 53 
Brickfields, 13 
Bricks, prices, 8, 13, 60, 65 
Bridges, 82 

Brissot de Warville, viii 
Buck Inn, 80 note 
Buckwheat, 3, 4, 11, 24, 35 

culture, 4, 29, 49 

prices, 33, 36, 60 

production, 4, 11, 14, 29, 32, 35, 41, 
47, 67, 68 
Buckwheat cakes, 34 
Buifalo Historical Society, acknowl- 
edgment to, iii 
Buffalo Valley, 85 
Buildings, 3, 10, 82 

city, description, 37, 51, 72 

farm, description, 24, 28, 30, 36, 39, 
43, 61, 78 

village, description, 17, 31, 44, 49, 
62, 64, 70 
Busti, Paul, letter to John Lincklaen, 




Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

Butcher, 31 

Butter, prices, 3, 7, 28, 33, 36, 48, 60, 
63, 68, 78 

Cabbages, 29, 34, 83 

Canal, built by the Schuylkill and 
Susquehanna Navigation Co., 46 
note; price of land for canal-way, 46; 
farmers opposed to building of, 47; 
Harrisburg citizens opposed to 
building, 54 

Capron, Mrs, girl's school, Newark, 
2 note 

Carlisle, 56-61, 85, 86, 90 

Carpenter, J. McF., acknowledgment 
to, iii 

Carpenters, 8, 25, 31 

Carrie farm house, 66 noU 

Carrots, 34 

Cat story, xiv, 6 

Catholic church, Reading, 38 
York Town, 69 

Catholic families in Reading, 38 

Cattle, 12, IS, 25, 49, 67, 78 
markets for, 3 
prices, 3, 4, 9 

Cazenove, Louis de, Jr., acknowledg- 
ment to, iv 

Cazenove, Theophile, proof of his 
authorship, v note; autograph let- 
ters, v note; letter of introduction to 
Gen. Irvine, vi; correspondence, vii; 
sketch of life, vii; financial under- 
takings, viii; first General Agent of 
Holland Land Company, ix; early 
historian of Holland Land Com- 
pany's activities, ix; stockholder in 
the Pennsylvania Population Co., 
ix note; journey through New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania, x; personality 
and manner of life, x; appetite for 
good food and choice drinks, xi; 
returned to Europe in 1799, xi; in 
employ of Dutch bankers, xi; be- 
came a naturalized citizen of United 
States in December 1794, xi note; 

exact relation with Talleyrand, xii; 
last years in Paris, xii; died in 
Paris, March 6, 181 1, xii; abandoned 
by Talleyrand, xiii; elevation of 
thought not lacking in Journal, xiv; 
body servant's drollery, xiv; Jour- 
nal, little of literary merit but many 
facts, xiv; mentioned, xi; portrait, 

Cazenovia, N. Y., named after Caze- 
nove, xiii 

Chambersburg, xiv, 63, 90 

Chatham, N. J., 2, 88 

Chester County, 76, 80 

Chestnut, 72, 79 

Chickens, prices, 8 

Christian Springs, Moravians at, 22 

Church of England, see Episcopal 

Churches, 10, 78; at Boonton, 7; pay- 
ments for support, 30. See also Ana- 
baptist; Catholic; English; Episco- 
pal; German; Lutheran; Methodist; 
Quaker; Presbyterian 

Cider, 3, 4, 9, II, 12; prices, il, 22; 32 
gallons make 4 gallons of spirits, 1 1; 
export of spirits to New York, 12 

City lots, price, 27, 3 1, 52, 54, 57; 
rent, 39; size, 72 

Clay, see Soils 

Clearing land, 82 

Cloth factory, 25 

Cloth-printing factory, I 

Qothing, manufacture, 34 

Clover, 24, 28, 35, 43, 58, 77, 78 
culture, 29, 33, 59 
production, 32, 35, 41, 67, 77 

Codorus Creek, 70 

Colleges, Boys' College, Nazareth, 20 
Carlisle, Dickinson, 57 

Comfort, William W., acknowledg- 
ment to, iii 

Conestoga creeks, 73, 75 

Conewago, 86 

Conewago Creek, 85 

Conococheague Creek, 64 



Coots Town, see Kutztown 
Corn, 3, II, 24, 55, 77 

culture, 4, 29, 48, 59 

prices, 49, 60, 67, 68 

production, 4, 9, il, 14, 24, 29, 32, 
41, 47, 58, 67, 68, 77 
Costume, of farmers, 45 
County records, 17 
County tax, 29, 36, 78 
Court-houses, 10, 17, 37, 53, 73 
Coventry, 77 
Cows, see Cattle 
Crabb (Crapp), William, tavern, 51 

Craig, Mrs William, 17 
Craig, William, 17 note 
Criminals, ID, see also Jails 
Cross Keys Inn, 35 note 
Croze, Gabrielle de, acknowledgment 

to, iii 
Crystal Lake, 43 note 
Cumberland County, 58, 61, 80 

Dancing, hall for, 9 
Daniels (Davies), John, I 
Dauphin County, 53, 80 
Davies (Daniels?), John, I 
Day, Timothy, inn, Chatham, 2 note 
Deep Spring, tavern at, 42 
Delaware River, 15 
Dickinson College, Carlisle, 57 note 
Distances from town to town, remark- 
ably exact generally, xiii 
Distilleries, 9, 11, 12 
Downing, Hunt, tavern, 76 note 
Downing, Joseph, 78 
Downingtown (Downing's Town), 76- 

Downingtown inn, 76, 84 
Drake's, Black River, N. J., 10 
Drawing teacher, 74 
Drunkenness, 13, 16, 75 
Ducks, prices, 8; wild, 14 
Duer, William, letter introducing 

Cazenove to, ix 
Dunkers, 79, 86 
Durand, John P., 5 note 

Dutch Valley, see German Valley 

Ealer, Peter, tavern, 28 note 

Easton, 14, 17, 19, 86, 87, 89 

Eckert (Ekhard), John, 43 note 

Education, see Boarding schools; Col- 
leges; Schools 

Egher's, Allen's Town, 27 

Ekhard, Squire, see Eckert, John 

Elks, 60 

Elmaker, Leonard, 76 

Emigration, 82; to Genesee country 
and Kentucky, 12; from New Eng- 
land to Kentucky and Ohio, 14; 
from East to Kentucky and Penn- 
sylvania, 31 

English church, Harrisburg, 53. See 
also Episcopal church; Presbyterian 

Ephrata, 80 

Episcopal church, Carlisle, 57 
Chambersburg, 65 

Erwin, General, see Irvine, General 

Essex County, review of militia, 3 

Evans, Mr, 41 note 

Evans, Paul D., acknowledgment to, 
iv, ix; researches in History of the 
Holland Land Co., xi note 

Excise, 12, 35 

Expense account, 87 

Facsimile pages, of Cazenove Journal^, 


Factories, brick, 53, 60, 65 
cloth, 25 
cloth-printing, I 
hat, 31, 37, 51 
shoe and boot, 2 
stocking, 2 
tobacco, 25, 31, 51 
wall-paper, 2 

Faesch, John Jacob, 6 note 

Fahnestock (Fomistak), Caspar, tav- 
ern, 79 noti 

Fairchild, Mrs Charles S., acknowl- 
edgment to, iv 


Cazenove Journal: 1794 

Fann-houses, lack of neatness and 
furniture, i6 

Farm land, prices, 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 13, 
14, 22, 23, 28, 30, 32, 33, 35, 42, 43, 
44, 45. 47» SI, 55, 5^, 61, 63, 65, 67, 
68, 76, 79, 80; taxation, 29 

Farmers, costume, 45; thrifty but 
avaricious, 44; wealth, 12, 75; wives, 
16. See also German farmers; 
Irish farmers; Lancaster farmers 

Farming conditions, records remark- 
ably exact, xiii 

Farming methods, 82 

Farms, size, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 13, 23, 28, 
29, 32, 35, 40, 43, 47, 55, 58, 63, 67 
68, 71, 75, 76, 79, 80; price for 
rentals, 28 

Ferries, 54 

Ferris, Mr, 5 

Fertilizers, 78, 82. See also Lime; 

Fish, 82 

Flax, 34, S9 

Flour, 33, 54, 60, 6s; prices, 8, 19, 63; 
cost of transportation, 19, 60, 63, 77 

Flour mills, 19, 25, 40, 52, 54, 64, 67, 
68, 75, 76 

Folliguet, Lieutenant Joseph, acknowl- 
edgment to, iii, V 

Forest land, see Wood land 

Forman, Lewis, 5 note 

Forsyth, John, 71 

Foster, Mr, 85 

Foster, Thomas, tavern, 56 note 

France, farmers in compared with 
farmers in America, 42 

Franklin County, 63, 64, 80 

Freight, see Transportation 

Fruits, 82 

Fry, George, 52, 54 

Funerals, 50 

Furniture, lack of, 16, 42, 76, 84 

Galatin, 86 

Game, 82 

Gardens, lack of, 16 

Genesee country, emigration to, 12 

Genet, citizen, x 

German church, Harrisburg, 52 
Reading, 38 

See also Lutheran churches; Pres- 
byterian churches 

German farmers, 29, 30, 42, 44, 55, 82; 
lack of education, 34; obstinate and 
ignorant, 34; slovenliness, 84; stingi- 
ness, 34, 46. See also Germans 

German Moravians, 22 

German newspaper, 1 8, 39 

German Valley, N. J., 13, 14 

Germans, 17, 23, 24, 37, 48, 50, $6, 
68, 69, 71, 72, 77, 79, 81. See also 
Farmers; German farmers 

Germantown, 32 

Gifford (Giffort), Archer, inn, i note 

Ginger-bread vendor, 31 

Golkowsky (Golgosski), George, 22 

Goose quills, price, 5 

Grains, 3, 43, 65 
price, 18 
shipping, cost, 19, 49 

Gravel, see Soils 

Greenawalt (Greenwald), Philip, 46 

Greenwich, 89 

Grimser, John, see Kremser, John 

Grotto, 49 

Hackensack, N. J., 88 

Hall, Mrs, 71 

Hamilton, Alexander, ix 

Hamilton, James, 72 note 

Hand, General Edward, 73 note 

Hanna (Annha), John A., 53 note 

Hanover, N. J., 4, 5, 88 

Hanover, Pa., 69 note 

Harpsichord teacher, 74 

Harris, Mr, 51, 52, 53 

Harris, William, 70 note 

Harrisburg, 51-55, 86, 90; diagram of 

principal streets, 51 note 
Harrison and Sterret, merchants, 

Philadelphia, 23 note 
Hartley, Col, Thomas, 70 note 



Hats, manufacture, 31, 37, 51; prices, 


Hay, price, 3, 3<5, 49, 60, 63, 67, 68, 77 
price for carting, 49 
production, 3, 9, 32, 41, 47, 58, 67, 

Hemp, 34 

Henderson, Matthew, 61 note, 6z 

Hessian fly, 10, 33, 77, 78 

Hickorj'-, 75; price, 68 

Hiester (Heyster), Joseph, 39 note 

Hietrick, Mr, 75 

Holland Land Company, ix; settle- 
ments which it hoped to promote 
upon lands in Pennsylvania, 14 note 

Home comforts, lack of, 16 

Hope, N. J., 26 note 

Horses, 15, 29, 33, 44, 48, 59 
prices, 3, 9, 12, 29 


Abbot's Town, Jones, Sign of the 

Indian Queen, 67 
Allen's Town, Egher's, 27 
Bethlehem, 25; Sun Inn, 23 
Black River, N. J., Drake's, lo 
Carlisle, 55; Foster's, 56 
Chambersburg, Shryock's, 64 note 
Chatham, N. J., Day's, 2 
Chester county, Fahnestock's (War- 
ren tavern), 79 note 
Deep Spring, 43 
Delaware county. Miller's (Buck 

Inn), 80 note, 91 
Downingtown, Downing's, 76 note, 

Dutch Valley, N. J., see German 

Easton, Opp's Golden Swan, 17 
Franklin township, Thompson's, 65 

note, 66 note 
German Valley, N. J., Miller's, 14 
German Valley, N. J., Van House 

Tavern, 13 
Hanover, N. J., Tapin's, 4, 5 
Harrisburg, Crabb's, 51 note 
Hummelstown, Rahm's, 49 note 
Kutztown, 31; Stoudt's, 30 note, 33 

Lancaster, Slough's, White Swan, 

72 note 
Lancaster, Stake's, 72 note 
Lebanon, Greenawalt's, 46 
Long Valley, N. J., see German 

Macungie township, Trexler's, 30 

Maiden Creek township, Cross Keys 

Inn, 35 
Morristown, N. J., O'Hara's, 7 
Mount Rock, 61 
Myerstown, Keener's, 45 
Nazareth, Kremser's, 19 
New Village, N. J., Mclntyre, 15 
Newark, N. J., Gifford's, i 
Newton township, McCracken's, 62 

Reading, Wood's, 37 note 
Salisbury township, McCleland's, 

75 note, 91 
Shippensburg, Rippey's, 62 note 
Washington, N. J., Wilson's, 15 
Whitehall township, Ealer's, 28 note 
Womelsdorf, Stauch's, 44 
York county, Russell's, 66 note 
York Town, Spangler's, 69 note 

Houses, 8. See also Buildings 

Hubley, John, 74 note 

Huidekoper, A. C, acknowledgment 
to, iv 

Hummelstown (Homelstown), 49-51, 

Indians, 71 

Innkeepers, chiefly farmers, who run 

hotels as a side-line, 15 
Inns, see Hotels 
Irish, 17, 23, 56, 57, 81 

farmers, 44, 55, 59 
Iron mines, 13, 32, 85, 86 
Iron rods, prices, 7 
Iron works, 6, 6r, 85, 86 
Irvine (Erwin), General William, v, vi, 

55 "0^^ 

Jails, 38, 53, 57, 64 


Cazenove Journal: 1794. 

Jameson, Dr J. Franklin, acknowledg- 
ment to, iv 

Jersey, see New Jersey 

Jeweller, 31 

Joiner, 31 

Jones, Sign of the Indian Queen, 67 

Jordan, John W., acknowledgment to, 

Journal, entirely anonymous, v; proof 
of Cazenove's authorship, v 

Juniata County, 85 

Keener (Khener, Kiiner), Godfrey, 

tavern, 45 note 
Kentucky, emigration to, 12, 14, 31 
Ketter, see Kitters 
Khener, see Keener, Godfrey 
Kittera (Ketter), John W., 74 note 
Koppe (Coppe), J. B., sermons, 18 

Klremser (Grimser), John, tavern, 19 

Kutz (Coots), George, 30 note, 3 1 
Kutztown (Coots Town), Pa., 30-35, 


Labor, in country, 5, 59; slaves, in 
country, 3. See also Wages 

La Coulombe, xi 

Lancaster, 72-75, 85, 86, 90; diagram 
of streets, 73 note; social scenes at 
during sessions of Court, xiv, 74 

Lancaster County, 71, 80, 83 

Lancaster farmers, 68, 75, 84 

Lancaster Town, 72 

Land-tax, 35 

La Roche, Baron de, xi 

Lawrence, Mr, 86 

Lawyers, 71 

Lebanon, 46, 47-49, 89 

Lehigh River, 28 

Le Roy, Mr, 87 

Lewis Town, 85 

Library in Morristown, N. J., 9 

Library of Congress, acknowledg- 
ment to, iii 

Lune, 12, 29, 48, 58, 77 

prices, 8, 13 
Lime land, see Soils 
Limestone, 29 
Limestone land, see Soils 
Lincklaen, Helen, see Fairchild, Mrs 

Charles S. 
Lincklaen, Colonel John, letter from 

Paul Busti, xii 
Liquors, 84; prices, 9, 11; distilled 

from cider, 9, 11,12. See also Drunk- 
Live stock, see Horses, Cattle, Oxen, 

Swine, Sheep, etc 
Locksmith, 25, 31 
Locust trees, 72 
Log houses, 24, 30, 31, 44, 49. 5h 61, 

62, 70, 73 
Long Valley, N. J., 13 note. See also 

German Valley 
Lots, see City lots; Farm land; Town 

lots; Village lots 
Lousiana purchase, xii 
Lumber mills, 25 
Lunt, William E., acknowledgment to, 

Lutheran (German) churches. 

Abbot's Town, 68 

Allen's Town, 27 

Bethlehem, 24 

Easton, 17 

Harrisburg, 52 

Kutztown, 31 

Lancaster, 73 

Lebanon, 48 

Myerstown, 45 

Reading, 38 

Womelsdorf, 44 

McAllister, Richard, 69 note 
Mc Allister's Town, 69 note, 71 
McCleland (Mc Clahan's), John, tav- 
ern, 75 note, 91 
Mc Collister, see Mc Allister 
McCracken (McCrake), William, tav- 
ern, 62 note 



Mc Int}Te, John, tavern, 15 noU, 89 
Maiden Creek township, 35 
Makentayer's Tavern, see Mclntyre, 

Manufactures, see Factories 
Manure, 12, 15, 29, 33, 58, 
Map, of Cazenove's Journey, xviii 
Maple, 72 
Maple sugar, 82 
Markets, 37; for cattle, 3; for farm 

produce, 4, 15, 18, 28, 32, 36, 60, 63, 

65, 67, 68, 77 
Marre, Charles, paper-mill, 4 
Marsh Creek, 66 note, 90 
Masons, wages, 8 

Maxatawny (Maxadany) township, 32 
Meat, prices, 7, 28, 33, 48, 60, 63, 78 
Mechanics, 51, 71 

Meinert, Reverend P. S., acknowledg- 
ment to, iii 
Melville paper mill, 4 note 
Merchants, 38 

Methodist church, Morristown, 9 
Middletown, 52 
Mifflin, Governor Thomas, 39 noti, 41 

note; letter to General Irvine, vi 
Mifflin's farm, 86 
Mildew, 77 
Militia, review of militia of Essex 

County, 3 
Militiamen, meeting with, 15 
Miller (Miler), Mr, of Philadelphia, 85 
Miller, Abraham, 50 note 
Miller, Andrew, 14 note 
Miller, Gen. Henry, 70 nott 
Miller, John, tavern, 80 note 
Miller, Jonathan, 80 note 
Miller's Tavern, 80, 91 
Millerstown, 50 
Mills, 19, 22, 30, 33, 52, 54, 55, 70, 82. 

See also Flour mills 
Miners, wages, 6 
Mining land, 61 note. See also Iron 

Ministers, 30, 31 
Montclare, 86 

Montgomery, Thomas L., acknowl- 
edgment to, iii 

Moore, John, 59 note 

Moravian settlements, peace and 
abundance in, 23 

Moravians, notes on contain inac- 
curacies, xiii; mentioned, xiv 
in Bethlehem, 24-27 
Christian Spring, 22 
Lebanon, 48 

Nazareth, 20; sojourn of Cazenove 
with, vi; entry from official Di- 
arium of Moravian Church, vi 

Moreau de Saint-Mery, Journal of, x; 
mentioned, xi 

Morris, Mr, x 

Morris, Benjamin, 39 not^ 

Morris, Cadwalader, 39 note 

Morristown, N. J., 5 noU, 7-10, 86, 88 

Morse's Geography, 20, 86 

Mount Hope, N. J., see Hope 

Mount Rock, 61 

Mountain land, price, 79 

Mummasburg, 66 note 

Musconetcong (Musconekon) Creek, 

Myers, Albert Cook, acknowledgment 

to, iii 
Myerstown, 45-46, 89 

Nazareth, 19-23, 86, 89; Moravians 
at, sojourn of Cazenove with, vi; 
entry from official Diarium of Mora- 
vian Church, vi 

Neatness, lack of, 16 

Necker, xii 

Negroes, 3, 8, 13, 67 

New Englanders, 81 

New Jersey, 1-17, 86, 87 

New Jersey Historical Society, ac- 
knowledgment to, iii 

New York, I 

New York Historical Society, acknowl- 
edgment to, iii 

Newark, N. J., I, 2, 88 

Newman, H. W., 66 note 


Cazenove Journal: 1794 

Newspapers, English, 52, 58, 65 

German, 18, 39 
Nicholson, James, 61 note 
Nicholson, John, of Carlisle, Pa., 61 

Nicholson, John, of Philadelphia, 39 

note, 41 note, 42 
Nicholson Co., coal mine, 86 
North and South Mountains, 61 
Northampton County, 80 
Northumberland County, 85 

Oak, 24, 79; prices, 7, 28, 33, 36, 48, 
60, 68. See also White oak 

Oats, culture, 29, 48, 59 
price, 49, 60, 63 
production, 58 

Ogden, Samuel, 6 note 

O'Hara, George, 7 note 

Ohio, emigration to, 14 

Oil press, 25 

Old Boonton, 6 noti 

Opp, Jacob, tavern, 17 note 

Orchards, II, 40. See also Apples 

Organ, at Nazareth settlement, 21 

Oxen, 3, 33, 59; prices, 3, 4, 9, 12, 29 

Paper, prices, 4, 64 

Paper-mills, 4, 64 

Parsons, Mary P., acknowledgment 
to, iii 

Passaic, N. J., 88 

Patent, Col., 85 

Paterson, Manufacturers' Company, I 

Patin, see Tapin 

Paulus Hook, 87, 88 

Peaches, 9 

Pear trees, 40 

Penn's Valley, 85 

Pennsylvania, 17-91 

Pennsylvania History Press, acknowl- 
edgment to, iv 

Pennsylvania Population Co., iz note 

Pequea, 75 note 

Pests, in crops, set Hessian fly 

Peiit, I, 81, 87 

Philadelphia, 60, 77, 78, 80 

Piersol, Mordacay, 18, 19, 22 
Pikeland, 77 

Plaster of Paris, 33,35, 41, 77; price, 29 
Plowing, 59; with horses, 29, 33, 48, 

59; with oxen, 4, 9, 12, 29, 33 
Politics, 16, 34 
Pollock, Mr, 86 
Pollock, James, 55 note 
Pollock, John, 55 note 
Pollock, Oliver, 55 note 
Pompton, cloth-printing factory, i 
Pontoons, 71 
Poor tax, 29, 36, 78 
Potatoes, 29, 34, 78 
Potter, 31 
Poultry, 78 
Preaching, in Dutch, 7. See also 

Presbyterian church. Black River, N. 


Morristown, 9 
Presbyterian church (English), Car- 
lisle, 57 

Chambersburg, 65 
Presbyterian church (German) 

Abbot's Town, 68 

Allen's Town, 27 

Bethlehem, 24 

Carlisle, 57 

Easton, 1 7 

Harrisburg, 53 

Hummelstown, 49 

Kutztown, 31 

Lebanon, 48 

Reading, 38 
Presbyterians, English, Chester 

County, 77 
Prices, see Boarding; Boards; Bricks; 

Butter; Cattle; Chickens; Ducks; 

Farm land; Flour; Goose quills; 

Grain; Horses; Iron rods; Lime; 

Liquor; Meat; Oak; Oxen; Paper; 

Salt; Transportation; Turkeys; Wal- 
nut; Wood 
Printing-plant, 18, 52, 57, 65 
Prisoners, see Jails 
Prisons, 10, 17 



Quaker church in Reading, 38 

Quaker farmer, 41 

Quakers, "jj, 81 

Quit-rents, 27, 31, 39, 47-48, 56, 62, 

65, 68, 70, 72 
Quittapahilla Creek, 47 

Rahm (Room), Michael, tavern, 49 

Raritan River, 13 

Read, Collison, 39 note 

Reading, 35 note, 36-42, 86, 89; dia- 
gram of principal streets, 37 note 

Red Stone, 45 

Rippey, Capt. William, tavern, 62 

Road tax, 29, 36, 78 

Roads, 24; condition, 3, 5, 13, 14, 15, 
39, 43, 44, 5°, 61, 66, 71, 81, 82 

Roberdeau, Isaac, 46 note 

Rocky Hill, 61 

Roman Catholic church, see Catholic 

Rooms, price, 33 

Roomtown, rv, 90 

Ross, James, 73 note, 74 note 

Rotation of crops, 29, 35, 48, 58 

Roumetonne, xv, 90 

Russel, Gilpin, 10 

Russell, Joshua, tavern, 66 note 

Rutherford, Mr, 14 

Rye, production, 4, 35 

Saddle maker, 31 
Sainseigher, see Zantzinger 
Saint-Mery, see Moreau de Saint- 

Salt, prices, 7, 28, 33, 60 
Saw-mill, 40 

Scheflfer (Schaffer), Nicolas, tavern, 35 
Schools, Black River, N. J., 12 

Carlisle, 57 

Downington, 78 

Harrisburg, 52 

Kutztown, 31 

Morristown, N. J., 9, 10 

See also Boarding schools 

Schuylkill River, 35, 37, 40, 91 

Schwarze, Reverend William A., ac- 
knowledgment to, iii 

Scotch, 17, 81 

Scott, John and Co., 64 note 

Seminaries at Bethlehem, 25 

Sharpless, Isaac, acknowledgment to, 

Sheep, 34 

Shippen, Jos., 62 

Shippensburg, 62-63, 85, 86, 90 

Shipping provisions, facilities for, see 
Markets; Transportation 

Shoe and boot factories, 2 

Shoemakers, 2, 25, 31 

Shryock (Shriock), Henry, hotel, 64 

Sign of Washington, Drake's inn, 
Black River, N. J., 11 

Silver Spring, 55 

Silver Spring Tavern, 86 

Sinking Spring, 42 note 

Sitgreaves, Samuel, 18 note 

Skinner's, 86 

Slate, soils, 58 note 

Slaves, see Negroes 

Slitland, 58 

Slough, Matthias, White Swan Hotel, 
72 note 

Smith, Major, 85 

Smith, James, 70 

Social life and customs, 16, 18, 82 

Soils, 2, 5, 7, II, 13, 15, 24, 30, 32, 40, 
44, SO, 55, 58, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 
75, 76, 79, 80; slate, 58 noU 

South Mountains, 63 

South Ridge, 66 

Spangler (Springel), Baltzer, 69 note 

Springfield, N. J., 2 

Stadnitski, S., vii 

Stage, travel by, 9, 39, 42, 47, 81 

Stake, Christian, tavern, 72 note 

Stauch, Conrad, 44 note 

Stites (Stuyts, Steitz, Steitze, Stits), 
George, 47 note 

Stockings, factory for, 2 

Stolker, Mr, 61 


Cazenove Journal: 17Q4 

Stores, 25, 31, 82 

Stoudt (Staudt, Stauht), John, tavern, 
30 note; price of board, 33 

Stoves, I, 75 

Stroud's tavern, 85 

Sun Inn, Bethlehem, 23 note 

Sunbury, 85 

Survey of lands in Cumberland coun- 
ty, 61 

Surveying of mountain land, 66 

Susquehanna River, 51, 52, 71 

Swatara cave, description, 49-50 

Swatara Creek, 47 

Sweet potatoes, 59 

Tailors, 25, 31 

Talleyrand, x, xi, xii; appreciation of 

Cazenove, xi; exact relation with 

Cazenove, xii; abandoned Cazenove, 

Tan-yard, 2, 25, 31 
Tapin (Parin), Mr, innkeeper at Han- 
over, N. J., 4, S 
Taverns, see Hotels 
Taxes, farms, 29, 36. See also County 

tax; Land tax; Poor tax; Road tax 
Temperature, 82. See also Weather 
Theater, in Mr Russel's school, 10 
Thompson, Alexander, tavern, 65 note, 

66 note 
Tillofsen, Nils, 21, 22 
Timothy, 67, 78 
Tobacco factory, 25, 31, 51 
Town lots, see Village lots 
Transportation, canal, 46 

of crops, 18, 19, 38, 52, 54, 60, 63, 

of merchandise, 60 

prices, 54 
Travel, 42; by stage, 9, 39, 42, 47, 81 
Trexler, Jeremiah, tavern, 30 note 
Troy, N. J., 5 

Tuition in colleges, see Colleges 
Tuition in schools, see Boarding 

schools; Schools 
Tulpehocken Creek, 47 
Tunkhannock Creek, 86 

Turkeys, prices, 8 

Turner, 31 

Turnips, 24, 29, 59, 78, 83 

United States troops, barracks, 55 
Upper Smithfield, 85 

Van Beverhoudt, Mrs, xiv, 6 

Van Beverhoudt, Lucas, 5 note 

Van Eeghen, C. P., acknowledgment 

to, iv, vii 
Van House tavern, German Valley, 13 
Van Jever, Margaret Helen, viii 
Van Laer, A. J. F., acknowledgment 

to, iii 
Vegetables, 29 

Village lots, prices, 9, 31, 48, 49, 62, 
63, 65, 68 

size, 62, 65, 68, 70 
Vincent, 77 
Vineyards, dilapidated state of, 16 

Wages, in country, 3,8, 12, 22, 24, 28, 
34» 36, 59, 67, 77; miners, 6; carpen- 
ter, 8; mason, 8; payment in wheat, 
36; in town, 48 

Wagon, price, 68 

Wall-paper factory, Springfield, 2 

Wabut, 72, 75; prices, 3, 7, 28, 33, 36, 

Warren Tavern, Chester county, 79 

Washington, George, referred to, 80 

Washington, N. J., 15 note 

Water power. Big Spring, 30 
Maxatawny township, 33 

Water supply, at Bethlehem, 26 
Lancaster, 73 
Mount Rock, 61, 62 
Nazareth settlement, 20 
Reading, 39 

Weather, 35, 41, 78, 81, 82 

Weaver, 31 

Weise (Wyse), Philip, 13 note 

Wells, Mr, 12 

Wemersville, 43 note 

Index jQ^ 

Weston, William, 46 noU Womelsdorf, 44 

Wteat, 24. 33. 35, 5°, 55, 68 Wood, Michael, hotel, 37 „o^ 

^^W 3 4, .., 48, 59, 6. 78 W^d, pHces ^ 7, ;8,^^68":%. ... 

P^s, .. .8, 3. 33, 36. 4. 60, 63, S;^S;^;e^- ^^'^^ 

P-dLction, 4, 6, 9, I., X4. .4. .8, '^;:fcj^f ' '' '' ''' ''' ^°' ''' ''' '' 

29, 32, 35. 41, 47, 52, 58, 67, 68, 77 Wright's Ferry, 71 qo 

Whiskey Insurrection, 3 «o^, 7 „o^, York, 86, 90 

49 notg V 7 ^-' 

White oak, 72, 75 Yort £°"°'^^ft ""^^ ^o 

TTTM T , . ^°^^ Town, 69-71 
Wilson, Joseph, mn, 15 noU 

Wilson's iron-works, 86 7,„^- /o • ... 

Wind Gap, 8s, 86 Zantzmger (Samse.gher). Paul, 74 noU 

nr. /rir- , V Zinzendorf, 20 

Witman (Withman) family, 37 note 

S3 53 # 

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